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Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament


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ENEMIES (ἐχθρός).—1. Of public enemies: twice in the Benedictus, Luke 1:71; Luke 1:74, where the word implies Gentile persecutors. In Luke 19:43 it is spoken of the Romans and their threatened siege of Jerusalem. In the quotation from Psalms 110:1 which occurs in Matthew 22:44, Mark 12:38, Luke 20:43, Hebrews 1:13; Hebrews 10:13, the same word denotes all the world forces opposing Christ. 2. Of private enemies, in the correction of the old maxim enjoining hatred, ‘Love your enemies,’ Matthew 5:43-44, Luke 6:27; Luke 6:35. 3. Of the devil and the powers of evil, in the parable of the Wheat and the Tares, Matthew 13:25; Matthew 13:39. 4. Of the spiritual forces acting in opposition to Christ, of which the strongest is death, 1 Corinthians 15:25-26. 5. Of wicked persons hindering the spread of Christ’s influence, the enemies of the cross, Philippians 3:18. The word used in NT for enemies is usually applied elsewhere to private or personal enemies, not to public foes. See, further, artt. Forgiveness, Hatred, Love.

C. H. Prichard.

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These files are public domain.
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Bibliography Information
Hastings, James. Entry for 'Enemies'. Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament. 1906-1918.

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