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Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament


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SALMON.—A link in our Lord’s genealogy (Matthew 1:4 f., Luke 3:32 [(Revised Version margin) Sala]).

SALOME (Gr. Σαλώμη, possibly shortened from Heb. שְׁלוֹמִיאֵל Shĕlômi’çl or the name = שָׁלוֹם Shâlôm with Gr. termination).—1. The daughter of Herodias, mentioned (although not by name) in Matthew 14:6-11, Mark 6:22-28. See Herod in vol. i. p. 722a and Herodias.

2. The mother of James and John, and wife of Zebedee (Mark 15:40; Mark 16:1; cf. John 19:25, Matthew 20:20; Matthew 27:56). In St. Matthew’s account of the ambitious request of the sons of Zebedee, she is represented as coming with her sons and prostrating herself before Jesus. St. Mark does not mention her in this connexion. She was one of the women who followed our Lord and ministered to Him (ἠκολούθουν αὐτῷ καὶ διηκόνουν αὐτῷ, Mark 15:41), and was present at the Crucifixion. Along with Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James the Little, she came after the Sabbath was over, bringing fragrant oils (ἀρώματα, μύρα [Luke 23:56]) with which to anoint the body of Jesus. In the narrative of St. John there are mentioned as present at the Crucifixion (standing ‘by the cross’) ‘his mother and his mother’s sister, Mary of Clopas and Mary Magdalene.’ It has been argued by some that three women only are here mentioned, and that the words ‘Mary of Clopas’ are explanatory of ‘his mother’s sister.’ Most of the more recent commentators, however, notably Westcott (‘St. John’ in Speaker’s NT Commentary, p. 275), hold that four women are meant, and that ‘his mother’s sister’ is Salome. The following considerations seem fairly conclusive in favour of this latter view: (1) it is most unlikely that two sisters in a private family should bear the same name; (2) the parallelism (‘his mother and his mother’s sister; Mary of Clopas and Mary Magdalene’) is characteristic of St. John; (3) ‘the circuitous manner of describing his own mother is in character with St. John’s manner of describing himself’ (W. L. Bevan in Smith’s DB [Note: Dictionary of the Bible.] , art. ‘Salome’); (4) the Peshitta inserts ‘and’ before Mary of Clopas; (5) Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James the Little (who is certainly the same as Mary of Clopas), and Salome are mentioned by St. Matthew and St. Mark as present. The supposition that Salome = ‘his mother’s sister’ harmonizes St. John’s account with that of St. Matthew and St. Mark.* [Note: Epiphanius (Haer. lxxviii. 8) says that Salome was a daughter of Joseph, and Nicephorus Callistus (HE ii. 3) makes her Joseph’s wife. These traditions, at any rate, indicate a belief in some connexion between Salome and the house of Joseph.] See also artt. Clopas, Mary.

Literature.—Besides the authorities quoted in the article, see Wieseler, SK [Note: K Studien und Kritiken.] , 1840, p. 648 ff.; art. ‘Salome’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (cf. art. ‘Herod,’ ib.), in Encyc. Bibl., and in Herzog’s PRE [Note: RE Real-Encyklopädie fur protest. Theologic und Kirche.] ; Commentaries of H. A. W. Meyer (English translation 1880), Alford, and Luthardt (on St. John’s Gospel, iii., English translation 1880, where, against his former view, he identifies Salome with ‘his mother’s sister’).

H. W. Fulford.

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Bibliography Information
Hastings, James. Entry for 'Salmon'. Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament. 1906-1918.

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