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Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words


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1: ἄνθρωπος
(Strong's #444 — Noun Masculine — anthropos — anth'-ro-pos )

is used (a) generally, of "a human being, male or female," without reference to sex or nationality, e.g., Matthew 4:4 ; 12:35 ; John 2:25 ; (b) in distinction from God, e.g., Matthew 19:6 ; John 10:33 ; Galatians 1:11 ; Colossians 3:23 ; (c) in distinction from animals, etc., e.g., Luke 5:10 ; (d) sometimes, in the plural, of "men and women," people, e.g., Matthew 5:13,16 ; in Mark 11:2 ; 1 Timothy 6:16 , lit., "no one of men;" (e) in some instances with a suggestion of human frailty and imperfection, e.g., 1 Corinthians 2:5 ; Acts 14:15 (2nd part); (f) in the phrase translated "after man," "after the manner of men," "as a man" (AV), lit. "according to (kata) man," is used only by the Apostle Paul, of "(1) the practices of fallen humanity, 1 Corinthians 3:3 ; (2) anything of human origin, Galatians 1:11 ; (3) the laws that govern the administration of justice among men, Romans 3:5 ; (4) the standard generally accepted among men, Galatians 3:15 ; (5) an illustration not drawn from Scripture, 1 Corinthians 9:8 ; (6) probably = 'to use a figurative expression' (see AV, marg.), i.e., to speak evil of men with whom he had contended at Ephesus as 'beasts' (cp. 1 Corinthians 4:6 ), 1 Corinthians 15:32 ; Lightfoot prefers 'from worldly motives'; but the other interpretation, No. (4), seems to make better sense. See also Romans 6:19 , where, however, the Greek is slightly different, anthropinos, 'pertaining to mankind;'" the meaning is as Nos. (5) and (6). * [* From Notes on Galatians, by Hogg and Vine, p. 139.]

(g) in the phrase "the inward man," the regenerate person's spiritual nature personified, the inner self of the believer, Romans 7:22 , as approving of the law of God; in Ephesians 3:16 , as the sphere of the renewing power of the Holy Spirit; in 2 Corinthians 4:16 (where anthropos is not repeated), in contrast to "the outward man," the physical frame, the "man" as congnizable by the senses; the "inward" man is identical with "the hidden man of the heart," 1 Peter 3:4 .

(h) in the expressions "the old man," "the new man," which are confined to Paul's Epistles, the former standing for the unregenerate nature personified as the former self of a believer, which, haveing been crucified with Christ, Romans 6:6 , is to be apprehended practically as such, and to be "put off," Ephesians 4:22 ; Colossians 3:9 , being the source and seat of sin; the latter, "the new man," standing for the new nature personified as the believer's regenerate self, a nature "created in righteousness and holiness of truth," Ephesians 4:24 , and having been "put on" at regeneration, Colossians 3:10 ; being "renewed after the image of Him that created him," it is to be "put on" in pratical apprehension of these facts.

(i) often joined with another noun, e.g., Matthew 11:19 , lit., "a man, a glutton;" Matthew 13:52 , lit., "a man, a householder;" Matthew 18:23 , "a certain king," lit., "a man, a king."

(j) as equivalent simply to "a person," or "one," whether "man" or woman, e.g., Acts 19:16 ; Romans 3:28 ; Galatians 2:16 ; James 1:19 ; 2:24 ; 3:8 (like the pronoun tis, "someone;" tis is rendered "man" in Matthew 8:28 ); or, again (as tis sometimes signifies), "a man," e.g., Matthew 17:14 ; Luke 13:19 .

(k) definitely, with the article, of some particular person, Matthew 12:13 ; Mark 3:3,5 ; or with the demonstrative pronoun and the article, e.g., Matthew 12:45 ; Luke 14:30 . For the phrase "the Son of man" see SON OF MAN. For "the man of sin," 2 Thessalonians 2:3 , see INIQUITY , No. 1.

(l) in the phrase "the man of God," 2 Timothy 3:17 , not used as an official designation, nor denoting a special class of believers, it specifies what every believer should be, namely, a person whose life and conduct represent the mind of God and fulfill His will; so in 1 Timothy 6:11 , "O man of God." Some regard this in the OT sense as of a prophet acting in a distinctive character, possessed of Divine authority; but the context is of such a general character as to confirm the more extended designation here.

Notes: (1) In Galatians 3:28 , the RV adds the italicized word "man" ("ye all are one man in Christ Jesus"), in accordance with Ephesians 2:15 , which speaks of Jew and Gentile as becoming "one new man" in Christ. The figure is closely analogous to that of "the body." In these two passages "one" is masculine, i.e., "one person;" in John 10:30 ; 11:52 ; 17:21,22,23 , "one" is neuter, "one thing," as in 1 Corinthians 3:8 ; 11:5 . The first two, in Galatians 3 and Ephesians 2 , express vital union, present and eternal; in John 17 the union is moral, a process in course of accomplishment. (2) For philanthropia, Titus 3:4 , "(His) love toward man," see KIND , C, No. 2. (3) In Revelation 9:20 , the RV translates the genitive plural of anthropos with the article, "mankind" (AV, "the men"); it might have been rendered "(the rest) of men."

2: ἀνήρ
(Strong's #435 — Noun Masculine — aner — an'-ayr )

is never used of the female sex; it stands (a) in distinction from a woman, Acts 8:12 ; 1 Timothy 2:12 ; as a husband, Matthew 1:16 ; John 4:16 ; Romans 7:2 ; Titus 1:6 ; (b) as distinct from a boy or infant, 1 Corinthians 13:11 ; metaphorically in Ephesians 4:13 ; (c) in conjunction with an adjective or noun, e.g., Luke 5:8 , lit., "a man, a sinner;" Luke 24:19 , lit., "a man, a prophet;" often in terms of address, e.g., Acts 1:16 ; 13:15,26 ; 15:7,13 , lit., "men, brethren;" with gentilic or local names (virtually a title of honor), e.g., Acts 2:14 ; 22:3 , lit., "Judean men," "a Judean man;" Acts 3:12 ; 5:35 , lit., "Israelite men;" Acts 17:22 "Athenian men;" Acts 19:35 , lit., "Ephesian men;" in Acts 14:15 it is used in addressing a company of "men," without any descriptive term. In this verse, however, the distinction between aner and anthropos (2nd part) is noticeable; the use of the latter comes under No. 1 (e); (d) in general, "a man, a male person" (used like the pronoun tis, No. 3), "a man" (i.e., a certain "man"), e.g., Luke 8:41 ; in the plural, Acts 6:11 .

3: τις
(Strong's #5100 — pronoun — tis — tis )

"some one, a certain one," is rendered "a man," "a certain man," e.g., in Matthew 22:24 ; Mark 8:4 , AV (RV, "one"); Mark 12:19 ; John 3:3,5 ; 6:50 ; 14:23 ; 15:6,13 ; Acts 13:41 , AV (RV, "one"); 1 Corinthians 4:2 ; 1 Timothy 1:8 ; 2 Timothy 2:5,21 ; James 2:14,18 ; 1 Peter 2:19 ; 1 John 4:20 .

4: ἄρρην
(Strong's #730 — Adjective — arren | arsen — ar'-hrane, ar'-sane )

see MALE.

5: τέλειος
(Strong's #5046 — Adjective — teleios — tel'-i-os )

perfect, is translated "men" in 1 Corinthians 14:20 , RV marg., "of full age," AV marg., "perfect, or, of a ripe age." See PERFECT.

Note: In many cases the word "man" is combined with an adjective to translate one word in the original. These will be found under various other headings.

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Bibliography Information
Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Man'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. 1940.

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