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Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words

Stone

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A — 1: λίθος
(Strong's #3037 — Noun Masculine — lithos — lee'-thos )

is used (I) literally, of (a) the "stones" of the ground, e.g., Matthew 4:3,6 ; 7:9 ; (b) "tombstones," e.g., Matthew 27:60,66 ; (c) "building stones," e.g., Matthew 21:42 ; (d) "a millstone," Luke 17:2 ; cp. Revelation 18:21 (see MILLSTONE); (e) the "tables (or tablets)" of the Law, 2 Corinthians 3:7 ; (f) "idol images," Acts 17:29 ; (g) the "treasures" of commercial Babylon, Revelation 18:12,16 ; (II) metaphorically, of (a) Christ, Romans 9:33 ; 1 Peter 2:4,6,8 ; (b) believers, 1 Peter 2:5 ; (c) spiritual edification by scriptural teaching, 1 Corinthians 3:12 ; (d) the adornment of the foundations of the wall of the spiritual and heavenly Jerusalem, Revelation 21:19 ; (e) the adornment of the seven angels in Revelation 15:6 , RV (so the best texts; some have linon, "linen," AV); (f) the adornment of religious Babylon, Revelation 17:4 ; (III) figuratively, of Christ, Revelation 4:3 ; 21:11 , where "light" stands for "Light-giver" (phoster).

A — 2: ψῆφος
(Strong's #5586 — Noun Feminine — psephos — psay'-fos )

"a smooth stone, a pebble," worn smooth as by water, or polished (akin to psao, "to rub"), denotes (a) by metonymy, a vote (from the use of "pebbles" for this purpose; cp. psephizo, "to count"), Acts 26:10 , RV (AV, "voice"); (b) a (white) "stone" to be given to the overcomer in the church at Pergamum, Revelation 2:17 (twice); a white "stone" was often used in the social life and judicial customs of the ancients; festal days were noted by a white "stone," days of calamity by a black; in the courts a white "stone" indicated acquittal, a black condemnation. A host's appreciation of a special guest was indicated by a white "stone" with the name or a message written on it; this is probably the allusion here.

Note: In John 1:42 petros stands for the proper name, Peter, as the RV (AV, "a stone;" marg., "Peter"); petros denotes "a piece of a rock, a detached stone or boulder," in contrast to petra, "a mass of rock." See ROCK.

B — 1: λιθοβολέω
(Strong's #3036 — Verb — lithoboleo — lith-ob-ol-eh'-o )

"to pelt with stones" (A, No. 1, and ballo, "to throw"), "to stone to death," occurs in Matthew 21:35 ; 23:37 ; Luke 13:34 ( John 8:5 in some mss.: see No. 2); Acts 7:58,59 ; 14:5 ; Hebrews 12:20 .

B — 2: λιθάζω
(Strong's #3034 — Verb — lithazo — lith-ad'-zo )

"to stone," virtually equivalent to No. 1, but not stressing the casting, occurs in John 8:5 (in the most authentic mss.); 10:31-33; 11:8; Acts 5:26 ; 14:19 ; 2 Corinthians 11:25 ; Hebrews 11:37 .

B — 3: καταλιθάζω
(Strong's #2642 — Verb — katalithazo — kat-al-ith-ad'-zo )

an intensive form of No. 2, "to cast stones at," occurs in Luke 20:6 .

C — 1: λίθινος
(Strong's #3035 — Adjective — lithinos — lith'-ee-nos )

"of stone" (akin to A, No. 1), occurs in John 2:6 ; 2 Corinthians 3:3 ; Revelation 9:20 .


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Bibliography Information
Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Stone'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/ved/s/stone.html. 1940.

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