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1911 Encyclopedia Britannica

Abraham Mapu

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ABRAHAM MAPU (1808-1867), Hebrew novelist. His works are chiefly historical romances in Hebrew. His most famous books were The Love of Zion and the Transgression of Samaria. Besides their intrinsic merits, these novels stand high among the works which produced the romantic movement in modern Hebrew literature. Mapu's plots were somewhat sensational, incident being more prominent than characterization. But underlying all was a criticism of contemporary life. His novels made a deep impression and became instantly popular. Mapu's Hebrew style is simple and classical. An English translation of the Love of Zion bears the title Amnon, Prince and Peasant, by F. Jaffe (1887). Mapu's stories have been often translated into other languages..

See N. Slouschz, The Renascence of Hebrew Literature (1909), ch. v. (I. A.) Maqqari, or Makkari [Abu-1-`Abbas Ahmad ibn Mahommed ul-Maggari] (c. 1591-1632), Arabian historian, was born at Tlemcen in Algeria and studied at Fez and Marrakesh, where he remained engaged in literary work until he made the pilgrimage to Mecca in 1618. In the following year he settled in Cairo. In 1620 he visited Jerusalem and Damascus, and during the next six years made the pilgrimage five times. In 1628 he was again in Damascus, where he gave a course of lectures on Bukhari's collection of Traditions', spoke much of the glories of Moslem Spain, and received the impulse to write his work on this subject later. In the same year he returned to Cairo, where he spent a year in writing his history. He was just making preparations to settle definitely in Damascus when he died in 1632.

His great work, The Breath of Perfume from the Branch of Green Andalusia and Memorials of its Vizier Lisan ud-Din ibn ul-Khatib, consists of two parts. The first is a compilation from many authors on the description and history of Moslem Spain; it was published by Wright, Krehl, Dozy and Dugat as Analectes sur l'histoire et la literature des Arabes d'Espagne (Leiden, 1855-1861), and in an abridged English translation by P. de Gayangos (London, 1840-5843). The whole work has been published at Bulaq (5863) and Cairo (1885).

For other works of Maqqari see C. Brocke mann's Gesch. der arabischen Litteratur (Berlin, 1902), ii. 297. (G. W. T.) Maqrizi, or Makrizi [Tagi ud-Din Ahmad ibn `Ali] (1364-1442), Arabian historian, known as al-Magrizi because of his ancestral connexion with Magriz, a suburb of Baalbek, was born at Cairo and spent most of his life in Egypt, where he was trained in the Hanifite school of law, though later he became a Shafi`ite with an inclination to Zahirite views. In 1385 he made the pilgrimage. For some time he was secretary in a government office, and in 1399 became inspector of markets for Cairo and northern Egypt. This post he soon gave up to become preacher at the mosque of `Amr, president of the mosque ul-Hakim, and a lecturer on tradition. In 1408 he went to Damascus to become inspector of the Qalanisiyya and lecturer. Later he retired into private life at Cairo. In 1430 he made the pilgrimage with his family and travelled for some five years. His learning was great, his observation accurate and his judgment good, but his books are largely compilations, and he does not always acknowledge the sources to which he is indebted. Most of his works are concerned with Egypt. The most important is the Mawa ` iz wal-I`tibar fi dhikr ul-Ijitat wal-Athar (2 vols., Bulaq, 1854), translated into French by U. Bouriant as Description topographique et historique de l'Egypte (Paris, 1895-1900; cf. A. R. Guest, "A List of Writers, Books and other Authorities mentioned by El Magrizi in his Khitat," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1902, pp. 103-125). Of his History of the Fatimites an extract was published by J. G. L. Kosegarten in his Chrestomathia (Leipzig, 1828), pp. 115-123; the History of the A yyubit and Mameluke Rulers has been translated into French by E. Quatremere (2 vols., Paris, 1837-1845). Magrizi began a large work called the Mugafa, a cyclopaedia of Egyptian biography in alphabetic order. It was intended to be in 80 volumes, but only 16 were written. Three autograph volumes exist in MS. in Leiden, and one in Paris.

Among smaller works published are the Mahommedan Coinage (ed. O. G. Tychsen, Rostock, 1797; French translation by S. de Sacy, Paris, 1797); Arab Weights and Measures (ed. Tychsen, Rostock, 1800); the Arabian Tribes that migrated to Egypt (ed. F Wi stenfeld, Göttingen, 1847); the Account of Hadhramaut (ed. P. B. Noskowyj, Bonn, 1866); the Strife between the Bani Umayya and the Bani Hashim (ed G. Vos, Leiden, 1888), and the Moslems in Abyssinia (ed. F. T. Rink, Leiden, 1790). For Maqrizi's life see the quotations from contemporary biographies in S. de Sacy's Chrestomathie arabe (2nd ed., Paris, 1826), ii. 112 seq., and for other works still in MS. C. Brockelmann, Gesch. der arabischen Litteratur (Berlin, 1902), ii. 38-41. (G. W. T.)

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Bibliography Information
Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'Abraham Mapu'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica. 1910.

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