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1911 Encyclopedia Britannica

Architecture

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ARCHITECTURE (Lat. architectura, from the Gr. &PXLTkTWV, master-builder), the art of building in such a way as to accord the principles determined, not merely by the ends the edifice intended to serve, but by high considerations of beauty and harmony (see FINE ARTS). It cannot be defined as the art of building simply, or even of building well. So far as mere excellence of construction is concerned, see BUILDING and its Lied articles. The aim of building as such is convenience, use, espective of appearance; and the employment of materials to this end is regulated by the mechanical principles of the instructive art. The aim of architecture as an art, on the other hand, is so to arrange the plan, masses and enrichments of a structure so as to impart to it interest, beauty, grandeur, unity, wer. Architecture thus necessitates the possession by the builder of gifts of imagination as well as of technical skill, and fat exist, and be harmoniously combined.

Like the other arts, architecture did not spring into existence sy an early period of mans history- The ideas of symmetry and E~ oportion which are afterwards embodied in material structures ac uld not be evolved until at least a moderate degree of civiliza- sk rn had been attained, while the efforts of primitive man in the hf nstruction of dwellings must have been at first determined sL lely by his physical wants. Only after these had been pro- th Sed for, and materials amassed on which his imagination ca ight exercise itself, would he begin to plan and erect structures, cc ssessing not only utility, but also grandeur and beauty. It or ay be well to enumerate briefly the elements which in corn- ar nation form the architectural perfection of a building. These hi ~ments have been very variously determined by different T, ,thorities. Vitruvius, the only ancient writer on the art whose a)rks have come down to us, lays down three qualities as in- or fpensable in a fine building: Firmitas, Utilitas, Venustas, ibilty, utility, beauty. From an architectural point of view tu e last is the principal, though not the sole element; and, b cordingly, the theory of architecture is occupied for the most es ,rt with aesthetic considerations, or the principles of beauty cc designing. Of such principles or qualities the following appear bi be the most important: size, harmony, proportion, symmetry, p1 nament and color. All other elements may be reduced under to e or other of these heads.

With regard to the first quality, it is clear that, as the feeling fo power is a source of the keenest pleasure, size, or vastness w, proportion, will not only excite in the mind of man the feelings hi awe with which he regards the sublime in nature, but will ar press him with a deep sense of the majesty of human power. ar is, therefore, a double source of pleasure. The feelings with T fich we regard the Pyramids of Egypt, the great hall of columns at Karnak, the Pantheon, or the Basilica of Maxentius at Rome, tv e Trilithon at Baalbek, the choir of Beauvais cathedral, w the Arc de lEtoile at Paris, sufficiently attest the truth of th is quality, size, which is even better appreciated when the bI ildings are contemplated simply as masses, without being th ~turbed by the consideration of the details. ru Proportion itself depends essentially upon the employment b mathematical ratios in the dimensions of a building. It is h curious but significant fact that such proportions as those of m exact cube, or of two cubes placed side by sidedimensions er creasing by one-half (e.g., 20 ft. high, 30 wide and 45 long) d(the ratios of the base, perpendicular and hypotenuse of a ar ~ht-angled triangle (e.g. 3, 4, 5, or their multiples)please the di e more than dimensions taken at random. No defect is more ~is iring or more unpleasant than want of proportion. ,The ac)thic architects appear to have been guided in their designs aI proportions based on the equilateral triangle. qi By harmony is meant the general balancing of the several b .rts of the design. It is proportion applied to the mutual rc lations of the details. Thus, supported parts should have p1 i adequate ratio to their supports, and the same should be a1 e case with solids and voids. Due attention to proportion a d harmony gives the appearance of stability and repose al aich is indispensable to a really fine building. Symmetry st uniformity in plan, and, when not carried to excess, is un- 10 ,ubtedly effective. But a building too rigorously symmetrical cc apt to appear cold and tasteless. Such symmetry of general of an, with diversity of detail, as is presented to us in leaves, qi iimals, and other natural objects, is probably the just medium tf ~tween the excesses of two opposing schools. si Next to general beauty or grandeur of form in a building fo mes architectural ornament. Ornament, of course, may hi used to excess, and as a general rule it should be confined si the decoration of constructive parts of the fabric; but, on m Le othet hand, a total absence or a paucity of ornament betokens m i unpleasing poverty. Ornaments may be divided into two cc a.ssesmouldings and the sculptured representation of natural pi fanciful objects. Mouldings, no doubt, originated, first, in at rnply taking off the edge of anything that might be in the way, B

Ilows of varfous forms; and thence were developed the stems of mouldings we now find in all styles and periods. ich of these has its own system; and so well are their charteristics understood, that from an examination of them a ilful architect will not only tell the period in which any building s been erected, but will even give an estimate of its probable e, as professors of physiology will construct an animal from e examination of a single bone. Mouldings require to be refully studied, for nothing offends an educated eye like a nfusion of mouldings, such as Roman forms in Greek work, Early English in that of the Tudor period. The same remark plies to sculptured ornaments. They should be neither too ,merous nor too few, and above all, they should be consistent. ie carved ox skulls, for instance, which are appropriate in temple of Vesta or of Fortune would be very incongruous a Christian church.

Color must be regarded as a subsidiary element in architecre, and although it seems almost indispensable and has always en extensively employed in interiors, it is doubtful how far ternal coloring is desirable. Some contend that only local. louring, i.e. the color of the materials, should be admitted; t there seems no reason why any color should not be used, ovided it be employed with discretion and kept subordinate the form or outline.

Origin of the ArtThe origin of the art of architecture is to be md in the endeavours of man to provide for his physical Lnts; in the earliest days the cave, the hut and the tent may ye given shelter to those who devoted themselves to hunting d fishing, to agriculture and to a pastoral and nomadic life, d in many cases still afford the only shelter from the weather. iere can be no doubt, however, that climate and the materials hand affect the forms of the primitive buildings; thus, in the o earliest settlements of mankind, in Chaldaea and Egypt, iere wood was scarce, the heat in the day-time intense, and e only material whichcould be obtained was the alluvial clay, ought down by the rivers in both, those countries, they shaped is into bricks, which, dried in the sun, enabled them to build de huts, giving them the required shelter. These may have en circular or rectangular on plan, with the bricks laid in rizontal courses, one projecting over the other, till the walls It at the top. The next advance in Egypt was made by the iployment of the trunks of the palm tree as a lintel over the orway, to support the wall above, and to cover over the hut d carry the flat roof of earth which is found down to the present ~y in all hot countries. Evidence of this system of construction found in some of the earliest rock-cut tombs at Giza, where the tual dwelling of the deceased was reproduced in the tomb, .d from these reproductions we gather that the corners, or ioins of the hut were protected by stems of the douva plant, und together in rolls by the leaves, which, in. the form of torus Ils, were also carried across the top of the wall. Down to the esent day the huts of the fellahs are built in the same way, d, surmounted as they are by pigeon-cots, bear so strong resemblance to the pylons and the walls of th.e temples as at events to suggest, if not to prove, that in their origin these me erections were copies of unburnt brick structures. From ag exposure in the sun, these bricks acquire a hardness and mpactness not much inferior to some of the softer qualities stone, but they are unable to sustain much pressure; conseiently it is necessary to make the walls thicker at the bottom an at the top, and it is this which results in the batter or raking les of all the unburnt brick walls. The same raking sides are and in all their mastabas, or tombs, sometimes built in unirnt brick and sometimes in stone, in the latter case being nple reproductions of the former. In some of the early astabas, built in brick, either to vary the monotony of the ass and decorate the walls, or to ensure greater care in their nstruction, vertical brick pilasters are provided, forming sunk ,nels. These form the principal decoration, as reproduced in me, of an endless number of tombs, some of which are in the -itish Museum. At the top of each panel they carve a portion orway a similar teature. In Chaldaea the same decorative itures are found in the stage towers which constituted their se nples, and broad projecting buttresses, indented panels and ea icr features, originally constructive, form the decorations of Ec Assyrian palaces. There also, built in the same material, ~ burnt brick, the walls have a similar batter, though they were raf;ed with burnt bricks. In later times in Greece and Asia fac nor, where wood was plentiful, the stone architecture suggests qu timber origin, and though unburnt brick was still employed for mass of the walls, the remains in Crete and the representans in painting, &c~, show that it was encased in timber ref ming, so that the raking walls were no longer a necessary ca~ ment in their structure. The clearest proofs of original ~Y aber construction are shown in the rock-cut tombs of Lycia, K(iere the ground sill, vertical posts, cross beams, purlins and trz)f joists are all direct imitations of structures originally rai cted in wood. ra The numerous relics of structures left by jrimeval man have pe aerally little or no architectural value; and the only interesting M)blem regarding themthe determination of their date and Cf rpose and of the degree of civilization which they manifest is within the province of archaeology (see ARCHAEOLOGY; wi RROW; LAKE-DWELLINGS; STONE MONUMENTS). un Technical terms in architecture will be found separately th :dained under their own headings in this work, and in this ide a general acquaintance with them is assumed. A number Sa architectural subjects are also considered in detail in. separate pl~ :icles; see, for instance, CAPITAL; COLUMN; DESIGN; ORDER; de d such headings as ABBEY; AQUEDUCT; ARcH; BASILICA; Pv THS; BRIDGES; CATACOMB; CRYPT; DOME; MOSQUE; PALACE; ~ RAMID; TEMPLE; THEATRE; &c., &c. Also such general articles cx national art as CHINA: Art; EGYPT: Art and Archaeology; an cEEK ART; ROMAN ART; &c., and the sections on archi- h :ture and buildings under the headings of countries and towns. In the remainder of this article the general history of the evolu- p~ n of the art of architecture will be considered in various mi :tions, associated with the nations and periods from which an leading historic styles are chronologically derived, in so far the dominant influences on the art, and not the purely local oft aracteristics of countries outside the main current of its WE tory, are concerned; but the opportunity is taken to treat WI th some attempt at comprehensiveness the leading features so the architectural history of those countries and peoples which foi intimately connected with the development of modern K]

hitecture. ar These consecutive sections are as follows: th Egyptian S~1

Assyrian Persian Greek rI

Parthian pr Sassanian cl(

Etruscan Roman in Byzantine ro Early Christian T,l Early Christian Work in Central Syria Coptic Church in Egypt e Romanesque and Gothic in Italy a~i France 0

Spain fu England Germany Belgium and Holland ~0 Renaissance: Introduction t Italy ar France m Spain England pl~

Germany t Belgium and Holland Mahommedan te Finally, a section on what can only be collectively termed Modern chitecture deals with the main lines of the later developments iwn to the present day in the architectural history of different untries. (R. P. S.) G

Jthough structures discovered in Chaldaea, at Tello and Nippur, ming to date back to the fifth millennium B.C., suggest that the her settlements of mankind were in the valley of the Tigris and phrates, north of the Persian Gulf, it is to Egypt that we must n for the most ancient records of monumental architecture 1 also EGYPT: Art and Archaeology). The proximity of the ges of hiHs (the Arabian and Libyan chains) to the Nile, and the ilities which that river afforded for the transport of the material irried in them, enabled the Egyptians at a very early period to roduce in stone those structures in unburnt brick to which we ~e already referred.

dthough the great founder of the first Egyptian monarchy is uted to be Menes, the Thinite who traditionally founded the dtal at Memphis, he was preceded, according to Flinders Petrie, an earlier invading race coming from the south, who established ionarchy at This near Abydos, having entered the country by the sseir road from the Red Sea; and this may account for the early dition that it was the Ethiopians who founded the earliest dynastic e, Ethiopians being a wide term which may embrace several es.

igyptian architecture is usually described under the principal -iods in which it was developed. They are as follows i :(A) the ~mphite kingdom, whose capital was at Memphis, south-west of iro, the Royal Domain extending south some 30 to 40 m.; (B) first Theban kingdom with Thebes as the capital; this covers ee dynasties. Then follows an interregnum of five dynasties, en the invasion of the Hyksos took place; this was architecturally productive. On the expulsion of the Hyksos there followed (C) second Theban kingdom, consisting of three dynasties, under ose reign the finest temples were erected throughout the country. :er 1102 followed six dynasties (1102525 B.C.), with capitals at s, Tanis and Bubastis, when the decadence of art and power took ce. Then followed the,Persian invasion, 52533 I B.C., which was;tructive instead of being reproductive. On the defeat of the rsians by Alexander the Great, and after his death in 323 B.C., s founded (D) the Ptolemaic kingdom, with Aiexandiia as the)ital. A great revival of art then took place, which to a certain .ent was carried on under the Roman occupation from 27 B.C., :1 lasted about 300 years.

~Vith the exception of a small temple, found by Petrie in front of ~temple of Medum, and the so-called Temple of the Sphinx, only monuments remaining of the Memphite kingdom are the ramids, which were built by the kings as their tombs, and the stabas, in which the members of the royal family and of the priests :1 chiefs were buried. The mastaba (Arabic for bench) was a nb, oblong in plan, with battering side and a flat roof, containing rious chambers, of which the, principal were (I) the Chapel for 1 rings, (2) the Serdab, in which the Ka or double of the deceased s deposited, and (3) the well, always excavated -in the rock, in ich the mummy was placed.

The three best-known pyramids are those situated about 7 m. ith-west of Cairo, which were built by the second, third and irth kings of the fourth dynasty,Khufu (c. 3969-3908 s.c.), iafra (c. 3908-3845 B.C.), and Menkaura (c. 3845-3784 s.c.), who better known as Cheops, Cephren and Mycerinus. The first of ~se is the largest and most remarkable in its construction and ting out. The pyramid of Cephren was slightly smaller, and that Mycerinus still more so, compensated for by a casing in granite. .e dimensions and other details are given in the article PYRAMIDS. am the purely architectural point of view they are the least imIssive of masses, and their immense size is not realized until on a se approach.

The temple of the Sphinx, attributed to Cephren, is T-shaped plan, with two rows of square piers down the vertical and one v down the cross portion. These carried a flat roof of stone. e temple is remarkable for the splendid finish given to the granite rs, and to the alabaster slabs which cased the rock in which it had ~n partially excavated (but see EGYPT: History, L).

The Serapeum at Sakkara, in which the sacred bulls were embalmed d buried, the tomb of Ti (a fifth dynasty courtier), and the tombs the kings and queens of Thebes, have no special architectural tunes which call for description here.

We pass on to the first Theban kingdom, the eighth king of which, ~bheprb Menthotp III., built the temple lately discovered on the ith side of the temple at Deir-el-Bahri, of which it is the prototype. was a sepulchial temple, and being built on rising ground was proached by flights of steps. In the centre was a solid mass of isonry which, it is thought by some authorities, was crowned by a ramid. This was surrounded by a double portico with square ~rs in the outer range, and octagonal piers in the inner range, Ire being a wall between the two ranges.

The earliest tombs in which the column (q.v.) appears, as an archi:tural feature, are those at Beni Hasan, attributed to the period Senwosri (formerly read Usertesen) I., the second king of the elfth dynasty. These are carved inthe solid rock. There are two i For the various chronological systems proposed see EGYPT:

ronology.

d a second variety known as the Lotus column, which is employed (1. ide, supporting the rock-cut roof, but having such slender prortions as to suggest that it was copied from the posts of a porch, Al md which the Lotus plant had been tied. th The culminating period of the Egyptian style begins with the ha igs of the eighteenth dynasty, their principal capital being Thebes, wi scribed by Herodotus as the City with the Hundred Gates; ha d although the execution of the masonry is inferior to that of the ler dynasties, the grandeur of the conception of their temples, d the wealth displayed in their realization entitle Thebes to the)st important position in the history of the Egyptian style, especiy as the temples there grouped on both sides of the river exceed number and dimensions the whole of the other temples throughout ypt. This to a certain extent may possibly be due to the distance Thebes from the Mediterranean, which has contributed to their sservation from invaders. We have already referred to the probable ,gin of the peculiar batter or raking side given to the walls of the Ions and temples, with the Torus moulding surrounding the same d crowned with the cavetto cornice. What, however, is more narkable is the fact that, once accepted as an important and aracteristic feature, it should never have been departed from, d that down to and during the Roman occupation the same batter found in all the temples, though constructively there was no cessity for it. The strict adherence to tradition may possibly ~ount for this, but it has resulted in a magnificent repose possessed these structures, which seem built to last till eternity.r An avenue with sphinxes on both sides forms the approach to 1 temple. These avenues were sometimes of considerable length, in the case of that reaching from Karnak to Luxor, which is 11/2 m.

long. The leading features of the temple (see fig. I) were:(A) The ii, pylon, consisting of two pyramidal masses of masonry crowned with a I cavetto cornice, united in the centre which on either side were seated figures of the king and obelisks.

1, 8 (B) A great open court surrounded by peristyles on two or three sides.

li ~ (C) A great hall with a range of ~ ~~ columns down the centre on either 1 ~ side, forming what in European 1:1 architecture would be known as ~i a ~ aisles on each side; these had hP .~ f~ columns of less height than those ___________ ~ first mentioned, so as to allow of 2 a clerestory, lighting the central ~ ~ o avenue. (D) Smaller halls with their flat roofs carried by columns.

B And finally (E) the sanctuary, with &

~ passage round giving access to the o halls occupied by the priest.

~ ~ Broadly speaking, the temples ii p bear considerable resemblance to iLl j~jjji one another (see TEMPLE), except C

A ___ in dimensions. There is one im portant distinction, however, to be J drawn between the Theban temples J r P1 n f the ~ and those built under the Ptolemaic IG.I. a 0 rule. In these latter-the halls are j Templeof Chons. ~ not enclosed between pylons, but A, Pylon, left open on the side of the entrance B, Great court. court with screens in between the C, Hall of columns, columns, the hall being lighted from D, Priests hall. above the screens. The temples of E, Sanctuary. Edfu, Esna and Dendera are thus arranged. -

The great temple of Karnak (fig. 2) differs from the type just scribed, in that it was the work of many successive monarchs. ms-the sanctuary, built in granite, and the surrounding chambers, sre erected by Senwosri (Usertesen) I. of the twelfth dynasty. In A nt of this, on the west side, pylons were added by Tethmosis hothmes, Tahutmes) 1. (1541-1516), enclosing a hall, in the walls which were Osirid figures. In front of this a third pylon was lded, which Seti (Sethos) I. utilized as one of the enclosures of the E1 eat hall of columns (fig. 3), measuring 170 ft. deep by 329 ft. wide, pc lying added a fourth pylon on the other side to enclose it. Again front of this was the great open court with porticoes on two sides, th a great pylon, forming the entrance. In the rear of all these I rildings, and some distance beyond the sanctuary, Tethmosis III. de 5031449) built a great colonnaded hall with other halls round, as nsidered to have been a palace. All these structures form a part fo fly of the great temple, on the right and left of wbich (i.e. to the fo rth-east and south-west) were other temples preceded by pylons id connected one with the other by avenues of sphinxes. Though pc small size comparatively, one of the best preserved is the temple ex Chons, built by Rameses III. It was from this temple that an b3

01 ~-~/ ~

001234).

)n the opposite or west bank of the Nile are the temple of Medinet u, the Ramesseum, the temples of Kurna and of Deir-el-Bahri; last being a sepulchral temple, which, built on rising ground, l flights of steps leading to the higher level (fig. 4), and porticoes;h square piers at the foot of each terrace. In the rear on the rightad side was found an altar, the only example of its kind known in I~I r B. Greet Coert mitt.

i~r~.~i_~_I ~j~j:: ~. Second Colon,,edeo I,, coot,..

ri LLJ~

D. P.11 of CoIo,,,,,a.

B. Third P.opyloe.

~: ::.~ p ~,- __________

0. Hell .oith Oooid figures.

- H. Gra,.,te Ea,sfuwy a,,d I. Open Area - adjoining ohw,,be,s.

I K. Columnar Edifice of Teth,,,o,ie III

(XVII I/h. Dynoso.P.

ii L. Temple of Ram0808 III.

. (XXIh. D~nerty.?.

f 3Ji.Temple of 800,0811.

rTT~ ~

~ ~i-f] ~ a. Scoliol,res of Set*oa I.

(XJXIh. .Dyno~y).

____________ b. Scolptore. of Shashook (XXIlad. Dys,oSiy,)

.......~:..U

________________ C. Scolptoros of R.nmese$ II.

(XIXth. DjnoVy d Corn/I Obelio,ka.

e s~ 11

n. Lw-ge Obelislea, _______________ 1. P11/are of Senwosrll.

IXI/ti.. Dy.,asO -

g. Hail of A,cesto,e, COURT~OF l~l ~TETHMOSISI.

I ..... ... I

1s~. ... .

I...._.. .......Ic .,.D,... D. ....D...

I ......

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L Ammon I r ?OURT I~

i: B o ~Rameono jfl GREA

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I. 0

I SHESHONK PLAN OF KARNAK

from Morsyo H.nd500k too Egipt by pmmimlon H: ~ ~ Edwwd Sta~to~

H0 ____

r~4:-~A

FIG. 2.

ypt. The halls behind this and the portico of the right flank had lygonal columns.

In the palace of Tell el-Amarna, built shortly before 1350 B.C. by 1 heretic king Akhenaton (whose name was originally Amenophis .), and discovered by Petrie there were no special architectural velopments, but the painted decoration of the walls and pavements;umed a literal interpretation of natural forms of plants and iage and of birds and animals, recalling to some extent that md at Cnossus in Crete.

Ascending the river from Cairo, the first temples of which imrtant remains exist are the two at Abydos. One of these has an :eptional plan, with seven sanctuaries in the rear. It was built SetS I., and consists of an outer portico with square piers, a hall, .,,~. .,.-.~- ..~.--.-f--.--~ ..,5...~..,..J ,., a ~ess to the seven sanctuaries. The second temple is of the ordinary ty pe, with pylon, court with portico on all four sides, two halls of th t~-, ~~-~ F~~ ~-

burnt brick, and in those cases where the rooms exceeded 8 or 9 ft.

width, columns in stone or wood were employed to assist in carry- foi the roof, which was constructed of beams carrying smaller bh nbers covered over with a flat roof of mud. The plans of the hotises its ~ p-~ :} ~ te ~ / II fr ________ - ~~Ft ~~i~1 th .:~i~,i~ th - - ~__:4~t~s4~l-l di - a ---~: - - -~ - - ~---- I, --- ~if c-k:- - ~ ~- -~j~-~~ ~

ti_.K ~ .~ - .:- -. it~jS)~l ~ in J~ ~ - -- - I. S ~ef~ ~

/7 ,-- :-. I- -~ // ~ hi ~ -~. -~ - - -- ~-: - - - sw~, - .s~ WI

~~em~ ~ ti~1L~,,lijl~lIa th Fii; 6,Exterior of thc- P~ Ion of the Temple of Edfu, sa re not unlike those found in Pompeii, with open courts and wi rticoes and no external windows. The streets ran at right angles CI

one another, and the houses varied in size from the workmans tk t, of one room, to the ocerseers house with several rooms and pa arts; the principal residence, in the centre, occupied by the of vernor of the town, being of still larger dimensions. th Further knowledge of the Egyptian dwellings is chiefly derived pa on the soul-houses recently discovered by Petrie, and from the w paintings in the tombs, which suggest that ea va_iir ~ ~ they corresponded to that class of residence N

~ II II III JIJU which in Rome was known as a villa, viz, a series of detached buildings built in immense of trees, artificial lakes, &c. The walls, gates wI and buildings were all built probably in on- of burnt brick, and the whole site, if on the SF borders of the river, raised on great mounds, or In this respect they accord with the houses N of the fellah at the present day, which are H,

~ enclostircs, with porticoes round, groves of p~

raised on the accumulation of centuries, for when, owing to the rise of the Nile, the of houses succumb to the moisture creeping up, is another house is built, on the top. The N representations in paintings show that the gr _________ ,houses were chiefly built in unburnt brick, and hi they sometimes were of two or three storeys ot FIG I Fa ade in height, with windows in the upper floors, to the Great ~Ialt and a flat roof with a kind of dormer known c~ Columns of the as the Mulhuf, turned towards the north-west to olemaic temple at to ventilate the house. The paintings fre- to If u quentl-j represent the store-rooms, or granaries; to and the preservation of those built by hi imeses the Great, in the rear of the Ramesseum at Thebes, as H snaries to hold corn, enables us to follow their construction. T iese granaries consist of a series of long cellars, about I2 to 14 ft. K de, placed side by side, and roofed over - with elliptical barrel w ults, The reason for the elliptical form and the method of their so nstruction is given in the article VAULT. bc The pavilion of Med met Abu was built in stone, and consequently ea s been preserved more or less complete to our clay. It consisted of Cr ree storevs with a flat roof and battlement round, said to be in UI itation of those on a Syrian fortress, as they are quite unlike bl ything else in Egypt. The floors were in wood, but there are traces as a stone staircase, The windows, of large size, were filled with m in stone slabs pierced with vertical slits, like those of the hall of of lumns at Karnak. (R. P. S.) p~

ASSYRIAN ARCHITECTURE

About 3800 B.C. the earlier inhabitants of Chaldaea or Babylonia th ,re invaded and absorbed by a Semitic race, whose first monarch to is Sargon of Agacle (Akkad). 1800 years later, ensigrations took th ice northward, and founded Nineveh on the banks of the Tigris, SI OOt 250 rn. north of Babylon. 1200 years later, the Assyrians nc gao building the magnificent series of palaces from which were Pt ought the winged man-headed bulls and the sculptured slabs now a the British Museum, The leading characteristics of the style, and WI e nature of the structures, ~mplcs and palaces, evolved by the at ialdaeans (or first Babylonian empire), the Assyrians, and the new ki ibylonian empire, are similar; they are best known by those th By a singular coincidence the remains of the oldest building md at Nippur (Niffar), in lower Mesopotamia, bear a close resem~ .nce to the oldest pyramid in Egypt, Medum, before it received final casing. The latter, however, is known to have been a tomb, ereas the strticture at Nippur was a temple, which took the form a ziggurat or stage tower, It consisted of several storeys built one Sr the other, the upper storey in each case being set back behind lower, in order to leave a terrace all round. In some cases the race was wider in front, to give space for staircases ascending m storey to storey. In consequence of the extreme flatness of country and its liability to sudden inundations, it became ~essary, when erecting buildings of any kind, to raise them on unds of earth, The more important the structure, the higher was leemed necessary to raise it, so as to make it the most conspicuous ture in the landscape. The result is that from Abu Shahrain, most southern town, to Akarkuf (Aqarquf), 220 m. north, ~re are a series of immense mounds, sometimes nearly a mile in ~meter, and rising to a height of 200 ft., crowned with the remains towns, which, notwithstanding the thirty centuries more or less ring which they have been exposed to the torrential rains and the ~tructive agencies of man, form still the most prominent features the country. The structures which were raised on the mound, the temples and palaces with their enclosure walls, were all ilt with bricks made of the alluvial clay of the country, shaped in oden moulds and dried in the heat of the sun, a heat so intense ft they acquired sometimes the hardness of the inferior qualities stone, The walls of the temples, palaces and enclosures had the ne batter as that already referred to in the preceding section on ypt. In the latter country they were reproduced in stone, of ich there were many quarries on either side of the Nile; in aldaea they were obliged to content themselves with the preservan of their ziggurats by outer casings of burnt brick and with cements of tiles for their terraces, In order to vary the monotony their temple walls, and perhaps to give them greater strength, fy built vertical bands or buttresses at intervals, or they sank nels in the walls to two depths, a natural decoration to which brick rk lends itself; and these two methods, ,which were employed in ly times, were followed by the Assyrians in the palaces of Nimrud, neveh and Khorsabad.

The earlier settlements were those founded between the mouths the Tigris and the Euphrates, on what was then the shore of the rsian Gulf, now some 140 m. farther south. The principal towns ere the remains of ziggurats have been found, all on the borders the Euphrates, beginning with the most southern, are:Abu abram (Eridu); Mugheir (TJr of the Chaldees); Senkera (? Ellasar Larsa); Warka (Erech); Tello (Eninnu); - Nippur; Birs mrOd (Borsippa); Babil (Babylon); El Ohemir (Kish); Abu ibba (Sippara); and Akarkuf (Durkurigalsu).

Although the ziggurats at Warka, Nippur and Tello are probably older foundation, the great temple of Borsippa at Birs Nimrud in better preservation, having been restored or rebuilt by ~buchadrezzar, and may be taken as a typical example. The)und storey was 272 ft. square, and, according to Fergtisson, 45 ft. th. The upper storeys or stages receded back, ,one behind the iier, so as to leave a terrace all round, Although it is not possible trace more than four storeys, it is known from the description on a linder found on the site that there were seven storeys, dedicated the planets, each colored with the special tint prescribed. The tal height was about 160 ft., and on the top was a shrine dedicated the god Nebo. An invaluable record of, the researches which ye been made during the last three centuries or more is given in V. Hilprechts Explorations in Bible Lands during the 19th Century. co or three of them might be mentioned here. At Warka Mr snneth Loftus uncovered a wall, strengthened by buttresses 15 ft. de and projecting 18 in,, between which were panels filled with a -ies of semicircular shafts side by side, both buttresses and shafts ing decorated with geometrical patterns consisting of small rthenware cones embedded in the wall, the ends of which were amelled in various colors. The design of these patterns is so like anything found in Assyrian work, but bears so close a resemince to the geometrical designs carved on the columns at Diarbekr :ribed to the Parthians, that this wall may have been built at a ich later period; and this becomes the more probable in view the discoveries made subsequently at Tello and Nippur, where .rthian palaces have been found, crowning the summits of the cient Chaldaean mounds, In both these towns the researches ide in later years have been carried otit far more methodically an previously, and, following the example of Schliemann, excavans have been made to great depths, caref iii notes being taken of strata shown by the platforms at different levels. At Tello, de rzac discovered the magnificent collection of statues of diorite w in the Louvre, one of them (unfortunately headless) of Gudea, iest-king and architect of Lagash, seated and carrying on his lap tablet, on which is engraved the plan of a fortified enclosure, iilst a divided scale and a stylos are carved in relief near the upper d right-hand side. A silver inlaid vase of Entemena, also priestig of Lagash (about 3950 B.C.), and other treasures, were found on same site, --~y~.-.~...--~ ~,,--.,--,-.-~J,

gurat dated from 4000-4500 B.C., of a barrel-vaulted tunnel, in det floor of which were found terra-cotta drain pipes with flanged in uths- At a later date (3750 nc.) Naram-Sin, the son of Sargon, dec :1 built over the older ziggurat a loftier and larger temple, above not ich was a third built by lJr Gur (2500 B.C.), which still retained wic burnt brick Casing, 5 ft. thick. Crowning all these was the imi rthian palace mentioned in the sectioo on Parthian architecture ow. The result of these researches has not only carried back the te of the earlier settlements to a prehistoric period quite unknown, has suggested that if similar researches are carried out in other Il-known mounds, among which the great city of Babylon should counted as the most important, further revelations may still made.

But we have now to pass to the principal cities of the Assyrian narchv on the river Tigris. At Nineveh, the capital, which is ut 250 m. north of Babylon, the remains of three palaces have m found, those of Sennacherib (705681 B.C.), Esarhaddon (68 1 BC-), and Assurbanipal (668626 B.C.). At Nimrud (the ancient ~J1TThIM 1~

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prom TJ~e History a) Art in Chatdaea and Assyria, by permission of Chapman hail, Lid, FIG. 8.Plan of the Palace at Khorsabad.

A, Principal courtyard. E, Official residences.

B, The harem. F, The kings residence.

C, The offices, G, The ziggurat or t~mple.

DD, The halls of state.

lah, founded by Assur), 20 m. south of Nineveh, are also three laces, one (the earliest known) built by Assurnazirpal (885860 :.), the others by Shalmaneser II. (860825 ac.) and Esarhaddon. Balawat, 10 m. east of Nineveh, was a second palace of Shalfneser II., and at Khorsahad, 10 m. north-east of Nineveh, the lace (fig. 8) built by Sargon 722705 nc.), which was situated on 1 banks of the Khanscr, a tributary of the Tigris. As this palace one of the most extensive of those hitherto explored, its descripm will best give the general idea of the plan and conception of an syrian palace.

The palace was built on an immense platform, made of sun-dried icks, enclosed in masonry, and covering an area of nearly one)nt of the palace measured 900 ft., there being a terrace in front. ie approach was probably by a double inclined ramp which chariots d hoises could mount. A central and two side portals (fig. 9), nked with winged human-headed bulls (now in the British ha useum), led to the principal courtyard (A), measuring 300 ft. by Wt o ft. The block (B) on the left of the court, containing smaller or urts and rooms, constituted the harem; that on the right the be ices (C); those in the rear the halls of state (DDD), the residences fit the officers of the court (E), the kings private apartments (F) ac ing on the left, facing the ziggurat or temple (G). In the extreme fo ir were other state rooms with terraces probably laid out as in ,rdens and commanding a view of the river and country beyond. in U,- ~ ~UU~ ~,U ~

srmine, it will be sufficient to refer only to those state rooms which the principal sculptured slabs were found, and which orated the lower 9 ft. of the walls. The two chief factors to be ed are (1) the great length of the halls compared with their th, the chief hall being 150 ft. long and 30 ft. wide, and (2) the nense thickness of the walls, which measured 28 ft. The only :~~ ~ ki:Engels I

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FIG. 9,Entrance gateway, Palace of Khorsabad.

son for walls of this thickness would be to resist the thrust of a fit, and as La Place, the French explorer, found many blocks of th of great size, the soffits of which were covered with stucco and I apparently fallen from a height, he was led to the conclusion, v generally accepted, that these halls were vaulted. These discries, and the fact that in none of the palaces excavated has a ~le foundation of the base of any column been found, quite dispose Fergussons restoration, which was based on the palaces of sepolis. Moreover, the two climates are entirely different. In mountainous country of Persia the breezes might be welcomed, in Mesopotamia the heat is so intense that every precaution FIG. fo.Bas-relief of group of buildings at Kuyunjik. (After Layard.)

s to be taken to protect the inmates of the house or palace. Thick us and vaults were a necessity in Nineveh, and even the windows openings must have been of small dimensions. No windows have ~n found, nor are any shown on the bas-reliefs, except on the per parts of towers. It is possible therefore that the light was mitted through terra-cotta pipes or cylinders, of which many were md on the site, and this is the modern system of lighting the dome the East. Although no remains have ever been found of domes any of the Assyrian palaces, the representation of many domical Reference has already beerrm~de to the bas-reliefs which decorated th e lower portion of the great halls; the less important rooms had as eir walls covered with stucco and painted. Externally the archi- co :tural deccration was of the simplest kind; the lower portion of an e walls was faced with stone; and the monumental portals, in bt dition to the winged bulls which flanked them, had deep archivolts in colored enamels on glazed brick, with figures and rosettes in di ight colors. A similar decoration would seem to have been X plied to the crenellated battlements, which crowned all the ca tenor walls, as also those of the courts. The buttresses inside the ru urts, and the towers which flanked the chief entrance, were th corated with vertical semicircular mouldings of brick. This of stem of decoration is also found in the ziggurats or observatories es hind the harem, where the three lower storeys still exist. A A1 nding ramp was carried round this tower, the storeys of which Ire set back one behind the other, the burnt brick paving of the be I) ii.

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FIG. II.

rnp and the crenellated battlements forming a parapet, portions ho which are still in situ. cei Although not unknown in either Chaldaea or Assyria, the stone co luinn, according to Perrot and Chipiez, found no place in those sic uctures of crude brick of which the real architecture of Mesopoaiia consisted. Only one example in stone, in which the shaft and St pita! together are 3 ft. 4 in. in height, has been found. Two bases sq similar design to the capital are supposed to have supported Sn oden columns carrying an awning. There are representations in th I bas-reliefs of kiosks in a garden, the columns in which, with at lute capitals, are supposed to have been of wood sheathed in Wi ital, and on the bronze bands of the Balawat gates in the British on useum are representations of the interior of a house with wood lumns and bracket capitals, and several awnings carried by posts. Pc naIl windows are shown in some of the bas-reliefs, with H lustrades of small columns, which were doubtless copied from ro e, ivory plaques found at Nimrud and now in the British pa useum. (R. P. S.) dr PERSIAN ARCEITEcTIJRE

The origin of Persian architecture must be sought for in that of the sh 0 earlier dynasties,the Assyrian and Median, to whose empire of mer, it borrowed the raised platform on which their palaces were a .ilt, the broad flights of steps leading up to them and the winged 22

portiCoes0f the palaces, so clearly described by Polybius (x. 24) existing at Ecbatana; the principal difference being that the umns of the stoas and peristyle, which there consisted of cedar d cypress covered with silver plates, were in the Persian palaces ilt of stone. The ephemeral nature of the one material, and the rinsic value of the other, are sufficient to account for their entire appearance; but as Ecbatana was occupied by Darius and rxes as one of their principal cities, the stone column, bases and Ditals, which still exist there, may be regarded as part of the toration and rebuilding of the palace; and as they are similar to)se found at Persepolis and Susa, it is fair to assume that the source the first inspiration of Persian architecture came from the Medians, iecially as Cyrus, the first king, wasbrought up at the court of tyages, the last Median monarch.

rhe earliest Persian palace, of which but scanty remains have In found, was built at Pasargadae by Cyrus. There is sufficient, ~ Plan of Persepoli~

Reference A. The Great Staircase B. Propylon _____ C. TheGreatPalaceofXerxes ~ D.Palaceof Darius E. Palace of Xerxes :: F. Second Propylort G. Palace of ioo columns H. Small Palace _-_r-T~.,?~z~9O Feet ~ever, to show that it was of the simplest kind, and consisted of a itral ball, the roof of which was carried by two rows of stone umfls, 30 ft. high, and porticoes in antis on two if not on three Cs.

rhe great platform, also at Pasargadae, known as the Takht-ileiman, or throne of Solomon, covered an area of about 40,000 ft., and is remarkable for the beauty of its masonry and the large nes of which it is built. These are all sunk round the edge, bein 1 earliest example of what is known as drafted masonry, whic Jerusalem and I-Iebron gives so magnificent an effect to the great lls of the temple enclosures. No remains have ever been traced this platform of the palace which it was probably built to support. We pass on therefore to Persepolis, the most important of the rsian cities, if we may judge by the remains still existing there. ~re, as at Pasargadae, builders availed themsel~es of a natural :ky platform, at the foot of a range of hills, which they raised in rts and enclosed with a stone wall. Here the masonry is not if ted, and the stones are not always laid in horizontal courses, t they are shaped and fitted to one another with the greatest ~uracy, and are secured by metal clamps. The plan (fig. II) sws the general configuration of the platform on which the palaces Persepolis are built, which covered an area of about 1,600,000 ft. The principal approach to it was at the north-west end, up nagnificent flight of steps (A) with a double ramp, the steps being ft. wide, with a tread of 15 in. and a rise of 4, so that they could be - .-.-- ~- ~J F-FJ- -J,

Lumns carrying the roof and with portals in the front and rear br nked by winged bulls. The earliest palace on the platform (D) of that which was built by Darius, 521 ac. It Was rectangular on col in, raised on a platform approached by two flights of steps, and arc risisted of an entrance portico of eight columns, in two rows of th~ ir placed in antis, between square chambers, in which were prob- oti ly staircases leading to the roof. This portico led to the great hail, irare on plan, whose roof was carried by sixteen columns in four of ws. This hail was lighted by two windows on each side of the th ritral doorway, all of which, being in stone, still exist, the lintels pr d jambs of both doors and windows being monolithic. The walls ph tween these features, having been built in unburnt brick, or in wa bble masonry with clay mortar, have long since disappeared. th~ iere were other rooms on each side of the hall and an open court in)~I ~

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- - --- - 5./ of ~ J~:(~ ~o, 2.12.The Tomb of Darius, cut in the cliff at Nakshi Rustam, an near Persepolis. OP

iresented on the tomb of Darius (fig. 12) and other tombs carved the rock near Persepolis (qv.), there is no difficulty in forming a ny accurate conjectural restoration of the same. In the repreItation of this palace, as shown on the tomb, and above the portico, been sculptured the great throne of Darius, on which he sat, ba idering adoration to the Sun god. an 1d1 the other palaces on the site, built or added to by various mi inarchs and at different periods, preserve very much the same in, consisting always of a great square hall, the roof of which was arc Tied by columns, with one or more porticoes round, and smaller Eg ~ms and courts in the rear. In one of the palaces (G) the roof was ear -ned by 100 columns in ten rows of ten each. The most important sei ilding, however, and one which from its extent, height and magnifi- va Ice, is one of the most stupendous works of antiquity, is the great thi Lace of Xerxes (C), which, though it consists only of a great central Cr LI and three porticoes, covered an area of over 1o0,ooo sq. ft., an ater than any European cathedral, those of Milan and St Peters wa Rome alone excepted. we It was built on a platform raised 1o ft. above the terrace and str proached by four flights of steps on the north side, the principal str trance. The columns of the porticoes and of the great hall were tin ft. high, including base and capital. In the east and west porticoes we 1 capitals consist only of the double bull or griffin; the cross bels on their backs, similar to those shown on the tomb of Darius, C~ ye disappeared, being probably in wood. In the north or entrance ag Ic capitals set c~n end, and belo; that th~ calix and penct~nt leaves he lotus plant. It can only be supposed that Xerxes, thinking the Limns of the east portico required more decoration, instructed his hitects to add some to those of the entrance portico and hall, and .t they copied some of the spoils brought from Branchidae and .ers from Egypt.

rig. 13 shows the plan of the palace according to the researches ~Vlr Weld Blundell, who found the traces of the walls surrounding great hail and of the square chambers at the angles, and also ved that the lines of the drains as shown in Costes and Texiers ns were incorrect. M. Dieulafoy also traced the existence of portico which stopped on the lines of the wall. The plan of IT ~ ml ~ ~L-~b. _. .

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a s ~ 5~ ~o z~o sfx~feet rom R. P. Spierss Architecture, East and West.

FIG. 13.Plan of the Hall of Xerxes.

palace at Susa was similar to that of the palace of Xerxes, :ept that on the side facing the garden facing south the apadana throne room was left open. M. Dieulafoys discoveries at Susa the frieze of archers, the frieze of the lions, and other decorations the walls flanking the staircase, all executed in bright colored imels on concrete blocks, revealed the exceptional beauty of the :oration both externally and internally applied to the Persian aces.

ribs; to those cut in the solid rock, of which there are some imples, we have already referred. The most ancient tomb is that cted to Cyrus the Elder at Pasargadae, and consists of a small me or celia in masonry raised on a series of steps, inspired (accordto Fergusson) by the xiggurat or terrace-temples of Assyria, on a small scale. The tomb was surrounded on three sides by ticoes of columns. There are two other tombs, one at Persepolis I one at Pasargadaesmall square towers with an entrance ining high up on one side, sunk panels in the stone, and a dentil nice, copied from early bonian buildings. (R. P. S.)

GREEK ARCHITECTURE

rehistoric Period.We have now to retrace our steps and go :k to the prehistoric period of Greek architecture, to the origin I early development of that style which sowed the seed and deteried the future form and growth of all subsequent European art. hitecture owes much less than was at one time supposed to yptian and Chaldaean architecture; and although from very ly times there may have been a commercial exchange between the eral countries, the objects imported suggested only new and ious schemes of decorative design, and exercised no influence on development of architectural style. The remains of the palace at ossus in Crete, together with the representations in fresco painting I other decorative objects, show that whilst the lower part of the ~ether, under one roof and in proper and regular intercommunica- I Itt n, of the numerous services, which in a palace are somewhat p0 iiplicated. The palace measured about 400 ft. square, and was pr ilt round an open court, nearly 200 ft. long by 90 ft. wide; as the p11 lie arrangement was found at Phaestus, excavated by the Italian th :haeologists, it may be assumed to have been the Cretan plan. re] was built on the crest of a hill, and in the western or highest portion of .s the court entrance from the agora to the megaron or throne- co m, and the halls of the officers of the state. In the lower portion wi ting the east (the rooms in which were two storeys below the level ep the court on account of the slope of the hill) was the private suite m, apartments of the king and queen. All tile services of the palace an re at the north end of tile palace, where the entrance gateway an the central court was situated. This northern entrance, Dr ha -ans points out, represents the main point of intercourse di tween the palace and the city on the one hand and the port on the sa her. This is the only part of the palace in which there is evidence en sonic kind of fortification, as the road of access is dominated by a of wer or bastion. Other provisions also in the plan of the western wt trance suggest that its passage was guarded to so~ne extent. In re is respect tile palace of Tiryns, excavated by Dr Schliemann, of esents an entirely different aspect; the whole stronghold bears a se igular resemblance to a fortified castle of the middle ages; a th ~h wall from 24 to 50 ft. thick surrounded the acropolis, and the of aimed paths of approach and the double gateways gave that it otection at .Tiryns which at Cnossus was assured, as Dr Evans in marks, by the bulwarks of the Minoan navy. The area on the spur gf the hill, on which the citadel of Tiryns was placed, was very much of ialler, but if we accept the forecourt at Tiryns as equivalent to fo e great central court at Cnossus, there are great similarities in in e plans of the two palaces. The propylaea, the altar court, the S:

rtico, and the megaron are found in both, and those details which lii e mms~ing in the one are found in the other. The discoveries at pm -lossus have enabled Dr Evaos to reconstitute the timber columns, al which the bases only were found at Tiryns, and the spur walls of sc e portico of the megaron and the sills of the doorways at Tiryns in s-c some clue to the restoration of similar features at Cnossus; ti d if in the latter palace we find the origin of the Doric column, at C(ryns is found that of the antae and of the door linings, further bstantiated by the careful analysis macic by Dr Dorpfeld of the A rraeurn at Olympia. t The reconstruction by Dr Evans of the timber columns at Cnossus, tc Etich tapered from the top downwards, the lower diameter being cc tout six-sevenths of the upper, has little historical importance (see nt EiDER), so that we may now pass on to the next early monument p~ importance, the tomb of Agamemnon, the principal and the best C eserved of the beehive tombs found at Mycenae and in other parts la Greece. This tomb consists of three parts, the dromos or open at trance passage, the tholos or circular portion domed over, and a n saIler chamber excavated in the rock and entered from the larger a Ic. The tomb was subterranean, the masonry being concealed t, tneath a large mound of earth. The domed part, 48 ft. 6 in. in d ameter and 45 ft. high, is built in horizontal courses of stone, 0

hich project one over the other till they meet at the top. Subse- a iently the projecting edges were dressed clown, so that the section q trough the dome is nearly that of an equilateral triangle. Notwith- j anding the great thickness of the lintel (3 ft.) over the entrance h)orway, the Mycenaeans left a triangular void over, to take off the ij iperincumbent weight, subsequently (it is supposed) filled with f~

ulpture, as in the Lions Gate at Mycenae. The doorway was t~

inked by semi-detached columns 20 ft. high, the shafts of which si pered downwards like those reconstituted at Cnossus; - the shafts 0

sted on a base of three steps, and carried a capital with echinus ti Id abacus. These shafts carried a lintel which has now dis- s Ipeared; the wall above was set back, and was at one time faced ith stone slabs carved with spiral and other patterns, of which there 0

v fragments in various museums, the most important remains being 12

lose of the shafts, of which the greater part, which was brought ti far to England in the beginning of the 19th century by the 2nd St arquess of Sligo, was presented by the 5th marquess to the British b luseum in 1905. These shafts, as also the echinus moulding of the g ipitals, are richly carved with the chevron and spirals, probably 0

)pied from the brass sheathing of wood columns and doorways mferred to by Homer. ft The Archaic Period.The buildings just referred to belong to 0

hat is known as the prehistoric age in Greece; the dispersion of the F

ibes by invaders from the north about 1100 n.e. destroyed the ii Iycenaean civilization, and some centuries have to pass before we mach the results of the new development. Among the invaders the 0

~orians would seem to have been the chief leaders, who eventually ~

ecame supreme. They brought with them from Olympus the p orship of Apollo, so that henceforth the sanctuary of the god takes a so place of the megaron of the king. From Greece the Dorians c Iread their colonies through the Greek islands and southern Italy. tater they passed on to Sicily and founded Syracuse, and subse- t uently Selinus and Agrigentum (Acragas). The prosperity of all ~

iese colonies is shown in the splendid temples which they built in tone, the remains of many of which have lasted to our day.

plan (fig. I 4) shows that tlie eiclosure of the sanctuary and its ticoes in a peristyle had already been found necessary, if only to)tect the walls of the celia, built in unburnt brick on a stone nth; further, that the antae of the portico and the dressings of entrance were in wood; and, following Pausanias statement ative to the wood column in the opisthodomos, all the columns the peristyle were in that material, gradually replaced by stone umns as theydecayed, evidenced by thecharacterof theircapitais, ich in style date from the 6th century B.C. to Roman times. The iemeral nature of the iterials employed in this ~-

ci other early temples, ~~ ~

ci the risk of fire, must ~ ~ WL_l!JJ ye naturally led to the A sire to render the Greek ,, -~

ictuaries more perman- - a -

by the employment j ,~~- -

stone. But the Greeks ~

re always timid as - D -

~ards the bearing value that material, and would ___________

mm to have imagined - ~ 14 I -

at unless the blocks were ~p) ~~%1/2Wr1

megalithic dimensions - - -

was impossible to build -

stone. This may be l t thered from the remains - - -

the earliest example ~ -

and, the temple of Apollo. I

the island of Ortygia, - -

racuse, where the mono- ~ c h columns had widely A - A

ojecting capitals, the - -

ad of which were set. /

close together that the 1 -

tercolumniation was less. -

an one diameter of the ~ - .

lumn. - -

Following the temple of -~ ,~ -

?ollo at Syracuse is the mple of Corinth, ascribed l~ -

650 B.C., of which seven ~.

lumns remain in situ, all ,~

onoliths, and the Olym- ~ - -

eum at Syracuse. Nearlyg~ ~j I

ntemporary with then I

tter is one of the tempies~L -

Selinus in Sicily, 63o B -

c., remarkable for the ~ I ~ I -

chaic nature of its scuip- ~ red metopes. Of later ~ A

ite there are five or six her temples in Sehinus, ~ ~ ~ I I

I overthrown by earth- ~-~ .--~-~--

iakes; the temple of S~e of Feet thena at Syracuse, which ,~.L.2 ~ ? ~ ~

wing been converted From Curtius and Adlers Olympia, by permisston to a church is in fair pre- ~ Beh,rend & Co.

rvation; an unfinished FIG. 14.Plan of the Heraeum. mple at Segesta; and A, Peristyle; B, Pronaos; C, Naos; mc at Agrigentum, built D, Opisthodomus; E Base of statue 1 the brow of a bill facing of Hermes.

Ic sea, one of which was large that it was necessary to build in walls between the columns. In Magna Graecia, in the acropolis at Tarentum, are the remains a 7th century temple and three at Paestum about a century ter in date. In one of these, the temple of Poseidon (figs. 15 and 16) te columns which carried the ceiling and roof over the celia are still anding; these are in two stages superimposed with an architrave mtween them, and although there are no traces in this instance of a illery, they serve to render more intelligible Pausanias description - that which existed in the temple of Zeus at Olympia.

The temple of Assus in Asia Minor is an early example remarkable r its sculptured architrave, the only one known, and in the temple - Aphaea in Aegina we find the immediate predecessor of the arthenon, if we may judge by its sculpture and the proportions of s columns.

So far we have only referred to the early temples of the Done der; of the origin and development of those of the Ionic order ,r less is known. The earliest examples are those of the temple of polio at Naucratis in Egypt, and of the archaic temple of Diana Ephesus, both about 560 B.C. The remains of the latter, diswered by Wood, are now in the British Museum; they consist of ro capitals, one with a portion of a shaft in good preservation; ie sculptured drum and the base of one of the columns, inscribed ith the name of Croesus, who is known to have contributed.to it; ~-~k ~ J~~&~5 ~J ~

hing the cornice and architraves, and in the Naxian votive column be have another early example of an early voluted capital., cci The tombs of Tantalais, near Smyrna, and of Alyattes, near Sardis, WI long to the same date as those we shall find in Etruria. The ea~ arpy tomb, now in the British Museum, built after 547 B.C., is the fla edecessor of many other Lycian tombs of the 5th and 4th centuries, an which we return. hu As already pointed out, in the temple of Hera at Olympia (roth of nturv nc.), we find the complete plan of an hexastyle peripteral -eek temple, where columns originally in wood supported a wood sit ~hitrave and superstructure protected by terra-cotta plaques and TI 2fed over with tiles. The temple of Apollo at Syracuse, and the of nple at Corinth (7th century nc.) represent the earliest examples Wa stone, and in the temple of Poseidon at Paestum (6th century) lea a preserved the columns of the cella which carried the ceiling and ha roof. The structural development pO therefore of the temple was corn- wc pleted, and no great constructional Wi ____________ after 550 B.C. The next century w ~ ____________ i. improvements reveal themselves oh directed to the beautifying and sta - fl would seem to have been chiefly TI

_______ p refining of the features already prescribed, and it was the tradi- of ~~-.-~.11~ ~ tional respect for, and the con- pr~

servative adherence to, the older kn ivpe, which led the architects to g the production of such master .1 L; pieces as the Parthenon and the I Erechtheum, which wotild have - been impossible but forthecareful iZ~ and logical progression of pre ~ ~g ceding centuries.

~ a The Parthenon (g.e.) at Athens I I ~ represents the highest type of ception but in its realization. It ~ perfection, not only in its con ~ i L I is only necessary here to give a general description. It was 1 f~ ~ L designed by Ictinus in collabora ~ i1----~ ~

tion with Calhicrates, and built on the south side of the Acropolis on a foundation carried down to the solid rock. The temple, corn- ~

Li menced in 454 ii.C. and completed in 438 B.C., was of the Done order and raised on a stylobate of three steps; it had eight columns in 1

front and rear and was surrounded 1G. 15.Plan of theTempleof bya peristyle, there being twenty Poseidon at Paestum. columns on the flanks. It con tained two divisions; the eastern fre amber was originally known as the Hekatompedos (temple tei iou ft.), that being the dimension of the celIa of the ancient nple which it was built to replace. The chamber on the western wa e was called the Parthenon (i.e. chamber of the virgin), in the principal lines of the building had delicate curves. The be tablature rose about 3 in. in the middle to correct an optical rd isbn caused by the sloping lines of the pediment, which gave to cd horizontal cornice the appearance of having sunk in the centre. pr te stylobate had therefore to be similarly curved so that the an ,umns should be all of the same height. The columns are not all so uidistant, those nearer the angle being closer together than the wi sers, which gave a greater appearance of strength to the temple; ca ,s was increased by a slight inclination inwards of all the columns. co order to correct another optical illusion, which causes the shaft of th olumn, when it diminishes as it rises, and is formed with absolute Pa aight lines, to appear hollow or concave, an increment known as entasis was given to the column, about one-third up the shaft, be te columns were not monoliths, like those of the earliest stone nples mentioned above; they were built in several drums, so th sely fitted together that the joint would be imperceptible but for 18 slight discoloration of the marble. The setting of the lowest


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Bibliography Information
Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'Architecture'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/bri/a/architecture.html. 1910.

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