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KALI (black), or Kali Ma (the Black Mother), in Hindu mythology, the goddess of destruction and death, the wife of Siva. According to one theory, Calcutta owes its name to her, being originally Kalighat, " Kali's landing-place." Siva's consort has many names (e.g. Durga, Bhawani, Parvati, &c.). Her idol is black, with four arms, and red palms to the hands. Her eyes are red, and her face and breasts are besmeared with blood. Her hair is matted, and she has projecting fang-like teeth, between which protrudes a tongue dripping with blood. She wears a necklace of skulls, her earrings are dead bodies, and she is girded with serpents. She stands on the body of Siva, to account for which attitude there is an elaborate legend. She is more worshipped in Gondwana and the forest tracts to the east and south of it than in any other part of India. Formerly human sacrifice was the essential of her ritual. The victim, always a male, was taken to her temple after sunset and imprisoned there. When morning came he was dead: the priests told the people that Kali had sucked his blood in the night. At Dantewara in Bastar there is a famous shrine of Kali under the name of Danteswari. Here many a human head has been presented on her altar. About 1830 it is said that upwards of twenty-five full-grown men were immolated at once by the raja. Cutting their flesh and burning portions of their body were among the acts of devotion of her worshippers. Kali is goddess of small-pox and cholera. The Thugs murdered their victims in her honour, and to her the sacred pickaxe, wherewith their graves were dug, was consecrated.

The Hook-swinging Festival (Churruk or Churuck Puja ), one of the most notable celebrations in honour of the goddess Kali, has now been prohibited in British territory. Those who had vowed themselves to self-torture submitted to be swung in the air supported only by hooks passed through the muscles over the blade-bones. These hooks were hung from a long crossbeam, which see-sawed upon a huge upright pole. Hoisted into the air by men pulling down the other end of the see-saw beam, the victim was then whirled round in a circle. The torture usually lasted fifteen or twenty minutes.

See A. A. Macdonell, Vedic Mythology (Strassburg, 1897).

The most illustrious name among the writers of the second epoch of Sanskrit literature, which, as contrasted with the age of the Vedic hymns, may be characterized as the period of artificial poetry. Owing to the absence of the historical sense in the Hindu race, it is impossible to fix with chronological exactness the lifetime of either Kalidasa or any other Sanskrit author. Native tradition places him in the 1st century s.c.; but the evidence on which this belief rests is worthless. The works of the poet contain no allusions by which their date can be directly determined; yet the extremely corrupt form of the Prakrit or popular dialects spoken by the women and the subordinate characters in his plays, as compared with the Prakrit in inscriptions of ascertained age, led such authorities as Weber and Lassen to agree in fixing on the 3rd century A.D. as the approximate period to which the writings of Kalidasa should be referred.

He was one of the " nine gems " at the court of King Vikramaditya or Vikrama, at Ujjain, and the tendency is now to regard the latter as having flourished about A.D. 375; others, however, place him as late as the 6th century. The richness of his creative fancy, his delicacy of sentiment, and his keen appreciation of the beauties of nature, combined with remarkable powers of description, place Kalidasa in the first rank of Oriental poets. The effect, however, of his productions as a whole is greatly marred by extreme artificiality of diction, which, though to a less extent than in other Hindu poets, not unfrequently takes the form of puerile conceits and plays on words. In this respect his writings contrast very unfavourably with the more genuine poetry of the Vedas. Though a true poet, he is wanting in that artistic sense of proportion so characteristic of the Greek mind, which exactly adjusts the parts to the whole, and combines form and matter into an inseparable poetic unity. Kalidasa's fame rests chiefly on his dramas, but he is also distinguished as an epic and a lyric poet.

He wrote three plays, the plots of which all bear a general resemblance, inasmuch as they consist of love intrigues, which, after numerous and seemingly insurmountable impediments of a similar nature, are ultimately brought to a successful conclusion.

Of these, Sakuntala is that which has always justly enjoyed the greatest fame and popularity. The unqualified praise bestowed upon it by Goethe sufficiently guarantees its poetic merit. There are two recensions of the text in India, the Bengali and the Devanagari, the latter being generally considered older and purer. Sakuntala was first translated into English by Sir William Jones (Calcutta, 1789), who used the Bengali recension. It was soon after translated into German by G. Forster (1791; new ed. Leipzig, 1879). An edition of the Sanskrit original, with French translation, was published by A. L. Chezy at Paris in 1830. This formed the basis of a translation by B. Hirzel (Zurich, 1830); later trans. by L. Fritze (Chemnitz, 1876). Other editions of the Bengali recension were published by Prema Chandra (Calcutta, 1860) for the use of European students and by R. Pischel (2nd ed., Kiel, 1886). The Devanagari recension was first edited by O. Bohtlingk (Bonn, 1842), with a German translation. On this were based the successive German translations of E. Meier (Tubingen, 1851) and E. Lobedanz (8th ed., Leipzig, 1892). The same recension has been edited by Dr C. Burkhard with a Sanskrit-Latin vocabulary and short Prakrit grammar (Breslau, 1872), and by Professor Monier Williams (Oxford, 2nd ed. 1876), who also translated the drama (5th ed., 1887). There is another translation by P. N. Patankar (Poona, 1888 -). There are also a South Indian and a Cashmir recension.

The Vikramorvasi, or Urvasi won by Valour, abounds with fine lyrical passages, and is of all Indian dramas second only to Sakuntala in poetic beauty. It was edited by R. Lenz (Berlin, 1833) and translated into German by C. G. A. Hofer (Berlin, 1837), by B. Hirzel (1838), by E. Lobedanz (Leipzig, 1861) and F. Bollensen (Petersburg, 1845). There is also an English edition by Monier Williams, a metrical and prose version by Professor H. H. Wilson, and a literal prose translation by Professor E. B. Cowell (1851). The latest editions are by S. P. Pandit (Bombay, 1879) and K. B. Paranjpe (ibid. 1898).

The third play, entitled Malavikagnimitra, has considerable poetical and dramatic merit, but is confessedly inferior to the other two. It possesses the advantage, however, that its hero Agnimitra and its heroine Malavika are more ordinary and human characters than those of the other plays. It is edited by O. F. Tullberg (Bonn, 1840), by Shankar P. Pandit, with English notes (1869), and S. S. Ayyar (Poona, 1896); translated into German by A. Weber (1856), and into English by C. H. Tawney (2nd ed., Calcutta, 1898).

Two epic poems are also attributed to Kalidasa. The longer of these is entitled Raghuvamsa, the subject of which is the same as that of the Ramayana, viz. the history of Rama, but beginning with a long account of his ancestors, the ancient rulers of Ayodhya (ed. by A. F. Stenzler, London, 1832; and with Eng. trans. and notes by Gopal Raghunath Nandargikar, Poona, 1897; verse trans. by P. de Lacy Johnstone, 1902). The other epic is the Kumarasambhava, the theme of which is the birth of Kumara, otherwise called Karttikeya or Skanda, god of war (ed. by Stenzler, London, 1838; K. M. Banerjea, 3rd ed. Calcutta, 1872; Parvanikara and Parab, Bombay, 1893; and M. R. Kale and S. R. Dharadhara, ibid. 1907; Eng. trans. by R. T. Griffith, 1879). Though containing many fine passages, it is tame as a whole.

His lyrical poems are the Meghaduta and the Ritusamhara. The Meghaduta, or the Cloud-Messenger, describes the complaint of an exiled lover, and the message he sends to his wife by a cloud. It is full of deep feeling, and abounds with fine descriptions of the beauties of nature. It was edited with free English translation by H. H. Wilson (Calcutta, 1813), and by J. Gildemeister (Bonn, 1841); a German adaptation by M. Muller appeared at Konigsberg (1847), and one by C. Schutz at Bielefeld (1859). It was edited "by F. Johnson, with vocabulary and Wilson's metrical translation (London, 1867); later editions by K. P. Parab (Bombay, 1891) and K. B. Pathak (Poona, 1894). The Ritusamhara, or Collection of the Seasons, is a short poem, of less importance, on the six seasons of the year. There is an edition by P. von Bohlen, with prose Latin and metrical German translation (Leipzig, 1840); Eng. trans. by C. S. Sitaram Ayyar (Bombay, 1897).

Another poem, entitled the Nalodaya, or Rise of Nala, edited by F. Benary (Berlin, 1830), W. Yates (Calcutta, 1844) and Vidyasagara (Calcutta, 1873), is a treatment of the story of Nala and Damayanti, but describes especially the restoration of Nala to prosperity and power. It has been ascribed to the celebrated Kalidasa, but was probably written by another poet of the same name. It is full of most absurd verbal conceits and metrical extravagances.

So many poems, partly of a very different stamp, are attributed to Kalidasa that it is scarcely possible to avoid the necessity of assuming the existence of more authors than one of that name. It is by no means improbable that there were three poets thus named; indeed modern native astronomers are so convinced of the existence of a triad of authors of this name that they apply the term Kalidasa to designate the number three.

On Kalidasa generally, see A. A. Macdonell's History of Sanskrit Literature (1900), and on his date G. Huth, Die Zeit des K. (Berlin, 1890). (A. A. M.)

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Bibliography Information
Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'Kali'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britanica. 1910.

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