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Bible Encyclopedias

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia


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krag ( שׁן , shēn (1 Samuel 7:12 ; 1 Samuel 14:4 ; Job 39:28 the King James Version and the English Revised Version)): In a mountainous country composed of sedimentary rocks, like the cretaceous rocks of Palestine, cliffs are formed on a slope where hard strata are underlaid by softer strata. The soft strata wear away more rapidly, undermining the hard strata above them, which for a time project, but finally break off by vertical joint planes, the fragments rolling down to form the talus slope at the foot of the cliff. As the breaking off of the undermined hard strata proceeds irregularly, there are left projecting crags, sometimes at the top of the cliff, and sometimes lower down. Two such crags ( shēn ha -ṣela‛ , "sharp rock," the Revised Version (British and American) "rocky crag"), which were given particular names, Bozez and Seneh, marked the scene of the exploit of Jonathan described in 1 Sam 14. Conder failed to identify the crags, and it has been proposed to alter the text rather extensively to make it read: "wall of rock" instead of "crag" (Encyclopedia Biblica , under the word "Michmash"). Such rocks form safe resting-places for birds of prey, as it is said of the eagle in Job 39:28 English Revised Version:

"She dwelleth on the rock and hath her lodging there,

Upon the crag of the rock, and the stronghold."

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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Crag'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1915.

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