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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia


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lı̄s ( כּנּים , kinnı̄m ( Exodus 8:17 , Exodus 8:18 ; Psalm 105:31 ), כּנּם , kinnim (Exodus 8:16 ), כּנּם , kinnām (Exodus 8:17 , Exodus 8:18 ); Septuagint σκνῖφες , sknı́phes (Exodus 8:16 , Exodus 8:18 ), τὸν σκνίφα , tón sknı́pha , once in Exodus 8:18 ; σκνῖπες , sknı́pes (Psalm 105:31 ); Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) scniphes ; according to Liddell and Scott, under the word σκνίψ , sknips , Slav. sknipa = culex ): The references, both in Exodus and in Psalms, are all to the plague of "lice." the Revised Version margin suggests "fleas" or "sandflies." The Septuagint rendering would favor "sandflies" or "mosquitoes," between which two insects the Old Testament writers would hardly be expected to discriminate. Mosquitoes belong to the order of Diptera , family Culicidae ; the sandfly (Plebotomus papataci ) to the family of Simuliidae of the same order. The sandflies are much smaller than mosquitoes, and are nearly noiseless, but give a sharp sting which may leave an unpleasant irritation. They are abundant in the Levant. In Southern Europe they cause the "three-day fever" or "papataci." As stated under GNAT (which see), there is little ground other than the authority of the Septuagint for deciding between "lice," "fleas," "sand-flies," or "mosquitoes" as translations of kinnı̄m . See also under GNAT the note on kēn , the Revised Version margin "gnat" (Isaiah 51:6 ).

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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Lice'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 1915.

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