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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

Tribulation

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trib - ū́ - lā´shun ( צר , car , צר , cār , "staid," "narrow," "pent up"; compare Numbers 22:26 ):

1. In the Old Testament:

Closely pressed, as of seals (Job 41:15 (7)); of streams pent up ( Isaiah 59:9 margin); of strength limited ( Proverbs 24:10 , "small"). Hence, figuratively , of straitened circumstances; variously rendered "affliction," "tribulation," "distress" (Deuteronomy 4:30 ; Job 15:24 ; Job 30:12 ; Psalm 4:2 ; Psalm 18:7 ; Psalm 32:7 ; Psalm 44:11 , etc.; Psalm 78:42 ; Psalm 102:3 ; Psalm 106:44 ; Psalm 119:143 ; Isaiah 26:16 ; Isaiah 30:20 ; Hosea 5:15 ; Ezekiel 30:16 ). Frequently, the feminine form (צרה , cārāh ) is similarly rendered "tribulation" (Judges 10:14 the King James Version; 1 Samuel 10:19 the King James Version; 1 Samuel 26:24 ); in other places "distress," "affliction" (Genesis 42:21 ; Psalm 120:1 ; Proverbs 11:8 ; 2 Chronicles 20:9 ; Isaiah 63:9 ; Jeremiah 15:11 ; Jonah 2:2 ; Nahum 1:9 ; Zechariah 10:11 ).

2. In the New Testament:

The Greek is θλίψις , thlı́psis , a "pressing together" (as of grapes), squeezing or pinching (from verb θλίβω , thlı́bō ); used figuratively for "distress," "tribulation"; Septuagint for car and cārāh ; Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) tribulatio pressura (from tribulum , "a threshing sledge"). The verb form is rendered "suffer tribulation" ( 1 Thessalonians 3:4 the King James Version, "suffer affliction" the Revised Version (British and American)); "trouble" ( 2 Thessalonians 1:6 the King James Version, "afflict" the Revised Version (British and American); compare 2 Corinthians 1:6 ; 2 Corinthians 4:8 ; 2 Corinthians 7:5 ; 1 Timothy 5:10 ; Hebrews 11:37 ). The noun form is rendered in the King James Version variously as "tribulation," "affliction," "persecution," though more uniformly "tribulation" in the Revised Version (British and American). The word is used generally of the hardships which Christ's followers would suffer (Matthew 13:21 ; Matthew 24:9 , Matthew 24:21 , Matthew 24:29 ; Mark 4:17 ; Mark 13:19 , Mark 13:24 ; John 16:33 ; 1 Corinthians 7:28 ); or which they are now passing through (Romans 5:3 ; Romans 12:12 ; 2 Corinthians 4:17 ; Philippians 4:14 ); or through which they have already come (Acts 11:19 ; 2 Corinthians 2:4 ; Revelation 7:14 ).


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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Tribulation'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/isb/t/tribulation.html. 1915.

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