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Bible Encyclopedias

Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature


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Firmament (; ; ), that which is distended, expanded—the expanse of heaven, i.e. the visible arch or vault of heaven resting on the earth.

With some old astronomers the firmament is the orb of the fixed stars, or the highest of all the heavens. But in Scripture and in common language it is used for the middle regions, the space or expanse appearing like an arch immediately above us in the heavens. Many of the ancients and of the moderns also, account the firmament a fluid substance; but those who gave it the name of 'firmament' must have regarded it as solid, and so we would infer from , where it forms the division between water and water.

The Hebrews seem to have considered the firmament as transparent, like a crystal or sapphire (; ; ; ).





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Bibliography Information
Kitto, John, ed. Entry for 'Firmament'. "Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature".

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