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Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature

Kishon

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(Heb. Kishon', קַישׁוֹן, winding; Septuag. Κισῶν ; but in Psalms 83:9, Κισσών v.r. Κεισών, Auth. Vers. "Kison"), a torrent or winter stream (נִחִל, A. V. "river") of central Palestine, the scene of two of the grandest achievements of Israelitish history-the defeat of Sisera (Judges 4:7; Judges 4:13; Judges 5:21), and the destruction of the prophets of Baal by Elijah (1 Kings 18:40). It formed the boundary between Manasseh and Zebulon (Joshua 19:11). (See JOKNEAM). Some portion of it is also thought to be designated as the "waters of Megiddo" (Judges 5:19). (See MEGIDDO). The term coupled with the Kishon in Judges 5:21, as a stream of the ancients (הִקְּדוּמַים, A. V. "that ancient river"), has been very variously rendered by the old interpreters.

1. It is taken as a proper name, and thus apparently that of a distinct stream-in some MSS. of the Sept. Καδημείμ (see Barhdt's Hexapla); by Jerome, in the Vulgate, torrens Catdumim; in the Peshito and Arabic versions, Carmmin. This view is also taken by Benjamin of Tudela, who speaks of the river close to Acre (doubtless meaning thereby the Belus) as the נחל קדומים . It is possible that the term may refer to an ancient tribe of Kedumirm-wanderers from the Eastern deserts-who had in remote antiquity settled on the Kishon or one of its tributary wadys. (See KADMIONITES).

2. As an epithet of the Kishon itself: Sept. χειμάῤῥους ἀρχαίων ; Aquila, καυσώνων, perhaps intending to imply a scorching wind or simoom as accompanying the rising of the waters; Symmachus, αἰγίων or αἰγῶν , perhaps alluding to the swift springing of the torrent (αϊ v γες is used for high waves by Artemidoru..). The Targum, adhering to the signification " ancient," expands the sentence-'" the torrent in which were shown signs and wonders to Israel of old;" and this miraculous torrent a later Jewish tradition (preserved in the Commentarius in Canticlum Debborce, ascribed to Jerome) would identify with the Red Sea, the scene of the greatest marvels in Israel's history. The rendering of the A.V. is supported by Mendelssohn, Gesenius, Ewall, and other modern scholars. The reference is probably to exploits among the aboriginal Canaanites, as the plain adjoining the stream has always been the great battle-ground of Palestine. (See ESDRAELON). For the Kishon of Joshua 21:28, (See KISHION).

By Josephus the Kishon is never named, neither does the name occur in the early Itineraries of Antoninus Augustus, or the Bordeaux Pilgrim. Eusebius and Jerome dismiss it in a few words, and note only its origin in Tabor (Onomasf. Cison), or such part of it as can be seen thence (Ep. ad Eustochium, § 13), passing by entirely its connection with Carmel. Benjamin of Tudela visited Akka and Carmel. He mentions the river by name as -" Nachal Kishon," but only in the most cursory manner. Brocardus (cir. 1500) describes the western portion of the stream with a little more fulness, but enlarges most on its upper or eastern part, which, with the victory of Barak, he places on the east of Tabor and Hermon, as discharging the water of those mountains into the Sea of Galilee (Descr. Terrce S. cap. 6, 7). This has been shown by Dr. Robinson (Eib. Res. ii,


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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Kishon'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/tce/k/kishon.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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