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Bible Encyclopedias

The 1901 Jewish Encyclopedia


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The rendering in the English versions of the Hebrew and its synonyms , . At one time darkness was regarded as something substantial, and not merely as the absence of light. This is apparent from the frequent juxtaposition of "darkness" with "light." God forms light and darkness (Isaiah 45:7 ) light and darkness are consumed or confined (Job 26:10 ). In the Creation-story, darkness is said to have been over primitive chaos, Abyss . In this opening sentence traces or reminiscences of an early mythological personification have been detected (see Cosmogony ). Darkness antedates creation. It has also been noticed that it is not called good, as are the other works of the Creator. The absence of the definite article before in Genesis 1:1 points in the same direction.

Something of this mythological notion is present in Job's imprecation (Job 3:4,5 ) where both "Ḥ oshek" and "Ẓ almut" (or "Ẓ almawet") are invoked as though ravenous monsters lying in wait for prey (the verb recalls the blood-avenger, the "goel"). They are in parallelism with a phrase— "Let all that maketh black the day" [R. V.]— which is now recognized by nearly all commentators to describe mythological beasts (see Dragon ). In ordinary speech, of course, the Hebrew mind did not revert to this personification of darkness and its underlying antecedent mythological conceits. Darkness is simply the night, as light is the day (Genesis 1:5,18 ). The sun grows dark the day is darkened and the like. In mines and other subterranean regions darkness has its realm, which the searcher for the precious metals invades, and thus forces upon it the establishment of new boundaries (Job 28:3 ). This impression of substantiality goes with the descriptions of Egyptian darkness (Psalm 105:28 Exodus 10:23 ). Darkness is also likened to a pillar of cloud (Exodus 14:20 ), as something almost palpable, if not personal. It is a frequent circumstance of theophany (2Samuel 22:12 = Psalm 18:12 ) and is associated with "She' ol" in such a way as to make it plausible that this place of the ingathering of the shades was a domain ruled over by twin demons, Ḥ oshek and Ẓ almut (darkness and thick darkness). The double form, masculine and feminine, "ḥ oshek" and "ḥ ashekah," also goes back to mythology.

In figurative speech, for reasons that are apparent, darkness was used for a secret hiding-place (Isaiah 45:3 Job 34:22 Psalm 139:11,12 ). As the effect of sorrow is to dim the eyes by tears, or as grief or sin injects darkness into the world (compare ' Ab. Zarah 8a), the Hebrew speaks of distress as darkness (Isaiah 5:30 , 29:18 Psalm 107:10-14 , again "Ḥ oshek" and "Ẓ almut").

Darkness is uncanny. It may be the hiding-place of evil spirits this, at all events, was the notion in post-Biblical times (compare Demonology ) therefore darkness expresses fear, dread, terror. As such it is one of the equipments of the Day of the Lord , a circumstance of judgment (Amos 5:18,20 Zephaniah 1:15 Nahum 1:8 ). This eschatological idea underlies also the darkness which ensues upon the Crucifixion (Matthew 27:45 ). According to the theory advanced by Gunkel ("Schö pfung und Chaos"), that in eschatological visions primitive mythology finds its expression, the underlying idea is that darkness is an attendant on final judgment or punishment (Matthew 8:12 , 22:13 , and frequently in N. T.).

Darkness is also the emblem of mysterious afflictions, of ignorance and frailty (Job 19:8 , 23:17 Isaiah 9:2 ), of sin and evil (Isaiah 5:20 Proverbs 2:13 ), of mourning (Isaiah 47:5 ), of doubt and vexation (Job 5:14 , 12:25), and of confusion (Psalm 35:5 ). As wisdom is light, so ignorance is darkness (Job 37:19 Ecclesiastes 2:14 ).

Darkness was the ninth of the ten Egyptian plagues (Exodus 10:21 et seq. ). What caused the darkness has been a subject of much unsatisfactory discussion. Some reminiscence based upon observation of natural phenomena is always involved in the other plagues. What the reminiscence is in this case has not been determined a storm of dust has been suggested by some commentators.

E. G. H.

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Bibliography Information
Singer, Isidore, Ph.D, Projector and Managing Editor. Entry for 'Darkness'. 1901 The Jewish Encyclopedia. 1901.

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