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The Day of the Lord.

Genesis 49:1 comp. Gen. R. xcviii., "the Messianic end" Isaiah 2:1 also "the end," Dent. 32:20 Psalm 73:17 Ben Sira 7:36, 28:6 comp. "Didache," 16:3): The doctrine of the "last things." Jewish eschatology deals primarily and principally with the final destiny of the Jewish nation and the world in general, and only secondarily with the future of the individual the main concern of Hebrew legislator, prophet, and apocalyptic writer being Israel as the people of God and the victory of His truth and justice on earth. The eschatological view, that is, the expectation of the greater things to come in the future, underlies the whole construction of the history of both Israel and mankind in the Bible. The patriarchal history teems with such prophecies ( Genesis 12:3,16 15:14 18:18 22:18 26:4 ) the Mosaic legislation has more or less explicitly in view the relation of Israel to the nations and the final victory of the former (Exodus 19 . 5 Leviticus 26:45 Numbers 23:10 , 24:17-24 Deuteronomy 4:6 7:6 et seq. 28:1,10 30:3 et seq. 32:43 33:29). But it was chiefly the Prophets who dwelt with great emphasis upon the Day of the Lord as the future Day of Judgment. Originally spoken of as the day when Yhwh as the God of heaven visits the earth with all His terrible powers of devastation (comp. Genesis 19:24 Exodus 9:23 , 11:4 , 12:12 Joshua 10:11 ), the term was employed by the Prophets in an eschatological sense and invested with a double character: on the one hand, as the time of the manifestation of God's punitive powers of justice directed against all that provokes His wrath, and, on the other hand, as the time of the vindication and salvation of the righteous. In the popular mind the Day of the Lord brought disaster only to the enemies of Israel to His people it brought victory. But this is contradicted by the prophet Amos (iii:2, 5:20). For Isaiah, likewise, the Day of the Lord brings terror and ruin to Judah and Israel (Isaiah 2:12 , 10:3 , 22:5 comp. Micah 1:3 ) as well as to other nations (Isaiah 14:25 , In: the same measure, however, as Israel suffers defeat at the hand of the great world-powers, the Day of the Lord in the prophetic conception becomes a day of wrath for the heathen world and of triumph for Israel. In Zeph. i-iii. it is a universal day of doom for all idolaters, including the inhabitants of Judea, but it ends with the glory of the remnant of Israel, while the assembled heathen powers are annihilated (iii:8-12). This feature of the final destruction, before the city of Jerusalem, of the heathen world-empires becomes prominent and typical in all later prophecies ( Ezekiel 38 , the defeat of Gog and Magog Isaiah 13:6-9 , Babel's fall Zechariah 12:2 et seq. , 14:1 et seq. Haggai 1:6 Joel iv. [iii.] 2 et seq. Isaiah 66:15 et seq. ), the Day of the Lord being said to come as "a fire which refines the silver" (Malachi 3:2 et seq. , 9 comp. Isaiah 33:14 et seq. ). Especially strong is the contrast between the fate which awaits the heathen and the salvation promised Israel in Isaiah 34 -xxxv., whereas other prophecies accentuate rather the final conversion of the heathen nations to the belief in the Lord (Isaiah 2:1 et seq. , xlix. 66:6-21, Zechariah 8:21 et seq. , 14:16 et seq. ).

Resurrection of the Dead.
In addition to this conception of the Day of the Lord, the Prophets developed the hope of an ideal Messianic future through the reign of a son of the house of David— the golden age of paradisiacal bliss, of which the traditions of all the ancient nations spoke (see Dillmann's commentary to Gen. ii-iii., p. 46). It would come in the form of a world of perfect peace and harmony among all creatures, the angelic state of man before his sin (Isaiah 11:1-10 , 65:17-25 : "new heavens and a new earth"). It was only a step further to predict the visitation of all the kingdoms of the earth, to be followed by the swallowing up of death forever and a resurrection of the dead in Israel, so that all the people of the Lord might witness the glorious salvation (Isaiah 24:21 -xxv:8, 26:19). The hope of resurrection had been expressed by Ezekiel only with reference to the Jewish nation as such (Ezekiel 37 ). Under Persian influence, however, the doctrine of resurrection underwent a change, and was made part of the Day of Judgment hence in Daniel 12:2 the resurrection is extended to both the wicked and the righteous: the latter "shall awake to everlasting life," the former "to shame and everlasting horror" (A. V. "contempt").

The "Kingdom of God."
It is difficult to say how far the Sadducees or the ruling house of Zadok shared in the Messianic hope of the people (see Sadducees ). It was the class of the Ḥ asidim and their successors, the Essenes , who made a special study of the prophetical writings in order to learn the future destiny of Israel and mankind (Daniel 9:2 Josephus, "B. J." 2:8, § § 6,12 idem , "Ant." 13:5, § 9, where the term ε ἱ μ α ρ μ έ ν η is to be taken eschatologically). While announcing the coming events in visions and apocalyptic writings concealed from the multitude (see Apocalyptic Literature ), they based their calculations upon unfulfilled prophecies such as Jeremiah's seventy years (Jeremiah 25:11 , 29:10 ), and accordingly tried to fix "the end of days" (Daniel 9:25 et seg . Enoch, 89:59). The Talmud reproachingly calls these men, who frequently brought disappointment and wo upon the people, "mahshebe ḳ eẓ im" (calculators of the [Messianic] ends: Sanh. 97b comp. 92b, 99a Ket. 111a Shab. 138b ' Eduy. 2:9-10 for the expression , see Daniel 12:4,13 Assumptio Mosis, 1:18, 12:4 II Esd. 3:14 Syriac Apoc. Baruch 27:15 Matthew 13:39 , 24:3 ). It can not be denied, however, that these Ḥ asidean or apocalyptic writers took a sublime view of the entire history of the world in dividing it into great worldepochs counted either after empires or millenniums, and in seeing its consummation in the establishment of "the kingdom of the Lord," called also, in order to avoid the use of the Sacred Name, ("the kingdom of heaven"). This prophetic goal of human history at once lent to all struggle and suffering of the people of God a higher meaning and purpose, and from this point of view new comfort was offered to the saints in their trials. This is the idea underlying the contrast between the "kingdoms of the powers of the earth" and "the kingdom of God" which is to be delivered over at the end of time to the saints, the people of Israel (Daniel 2:44 7:14,27 ). It is, however, utterly erroneous to assert, as do Schü rer ("Geschichte," 2:504 et seq. ) and Bousset (" Religion des Judenthums," pp. 202 et seq. ), that this kingdom of God meant a political triumph of the Jewish people and the annihilation of all other nations. As may be learned from Tobit 13:11 et seq. , 14:6, quoted by Schü rer (l.c. 2:507), and from the ancient New-Year's liturgy (see also ' Alenu ), "the conversion of all creatures to become one single band to do, God's will" is the foremost object of Israel's Messianic hope only the removal of "the kingdom of violence" must precede the establishment of God's kingdom. This hope for the coming of the kingdom of God is expressed also in the Ḳ addish (comp. Lord's Prayer ) and in the eleventh benediction of the "Shemoneh ' Esreh," whereas the destruction of the kingdom of wickedness first found expression in the added (nineteenth) benediction (afterward directed chiefly against obnoxious informers and heretics see Liturgy ), and was in the Hellenistic propaganda literature, the Sibyllines (iii:47,767 et al. ), emphasized especially with a view to the conversion of the heathen.

World-Epochs.
In contrasting the future kingdom of God with the kingdom of the heathen powers of the world the apocalyptic writers were undoubtedly influenced by Parsism, which saw the world divided between Ahuramazda and Angro-mainyush, who battle with each other until finally the latter, at the end of the fourth period of the twelve world-millenniums, is defeated by the former after a great crisis in which the bad principle seems to win the upper hand (see Plutarch, "On Isis and Osiris," ch. 47 Bundahis, 34:1 "Bahman Yasht," 1:5, 2:22 et seq. "S. B. E." 5:149,193 et seq. Stade, "Ueber den Einfluss, des Parsismus auf das Judenthum," 1898, pp. 145 et seq. ). The idea of four world-empires succeeding one another and represented by the four metals (Daniel 2 , vii.), which also has its parallel in Parsism ("Bahman Yasht," 1:3), and in Hindu, Greek, and Roman traditions ("Laws of Manes," 1:71 et seq. Hesiod, "Works and Days," pp. 109 et seq. Ovid, "Metamorphoses," 1:89), seems to rest upon an ancient tradition which goes back to Babylonia (see Gunkel's commentary on Genesis 1902 , p. 241). Gunkel finds in the twelve millenniums of Persian belief an astronomical world-year with four seasons, and sees the four Babylonian world-epochs reproduced in the four successive periods of Adam, Noah, Abraham, and Moses. The four periods occur again in Enoch, lxxxix. et seq. (see Kautzsch, "Pseudepigraphen," p. 294) and Revelation 6:1 also in Zechariah 2:1 (A. V. 1:18 ), vi.1 and Daniel 8:22 and the four undivided animals in the vision of Abraham ( Genesis 15:9 ) were by the early haggadists (Johanan b. Zakkai, in Gen. R. xliv. Apoc. Abraham, xv., xxviii.) referred to the four world-empires in an eschatological sense.

A World-Week.
The Perso-Babylonian world-year of twelve millenniums, however, was transformed in Jewish eschatology into a world-week of seven millenniums corresponding with the week of Creation, the verse "A thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday" (Psalm 90:5 [A. 5:4]) having suggested the idea that the present world of toil ("' olam ha-zeh") is to be followed by a Sabbatical millennium, "the world to come" ("' olam ha-ba' ": Tamid 7:4 R. H. 31a Sanh. 97a Ab. R. N. i., ed. Schechter, p. 5 Enoch, 23:1 II Esdras 7:30,43 Testament of Abraham, A. xix., B. vii. Vita Adæ et Evæ , 42 Revelation 20:1 II Peter 3:8 Epistle of Barnabas, xv. Irenæ us, 5:28,3). Of these the six millenniums were again divided, as in Parsism, into three periods: the first 2,000 years devoid of the Law the next 2,000 years under the rule of the Law and the last 2,000 years preparing amid struggles and through catastrophes for the rule of the Messiah (Sanh. 97a ' Ab. Zarah 9a Midr. Teh. xc. 17) the Messianic era is said to begin 4,291 years after Creation (comp. the 5,500 years after Creation, after the lapse of which the Messiah is expected, in Vita Adæ et Evæ , 42 also Assumptio Mosis, 10:12). On a probably similar calculation, which placed the destruction of the Second Temple at 3828 (Sanh. l.c. ), rests also the division of the world into twelve epochs of 400 years, nine and a half of which epochs had passed at the time of the destruction of the Temple (II Esdras 14:11 comp. 7:28). Twelve periods occur also in the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (xxvii., liii.) and the Apocalypse of Abraham (xxix.) the ten millenniums of Enoch 21:6, however, appear to be identical with the ten weeks in ch. xciii., that Isaiah 10 x 700 years. As a matter of course, Biblical chronology was always so construed as to bring the six millenniums into accord with the Messianic expectations of the time only by special favor would the mystery of the end, known only to God, be revealed to His saints ( Daniel 12:9 II Esd. 4:37, 11:44 Syriac Apoc. Baruch 54:1 , 81:4 Matthew 24:36 Pes. 54b). The end was believed to be brought about by the merit of a certain number of saints or martyrs (Enoch, 47:4 II Esd. 4:36 Revelation 7:4 ), or by the completion of the number of human souls sent from their heavenly abode to the earth, the number of created souls being fixed (Syriac Apoc. Baruch 23:4 ' Ab. Zarah 5a Yeb. 63b). Finally, it was taught that "he who announces the Messianic time based on calculation forfeits his own share in the future" (R. Jose, in Derek Ereẓ R. xi.) and that "the advent of the Messiah is dependent upon general repentance brought about by the prophet Elijah" (Sanh. 97b Pirḳ e R. El. xliii. Assumptio Mosis, 1:18).

Travail of the Messianic Time.
There prevails a singular harmony among the apocalyptic writings and traditions, especially regarding the successive stages of the eschatological drama. The first of these is the "travail" of the Messianic time ( literally, "the suffering of the Messiah" comp. Pesiḳ . R. 21,34 Shab. 118a Pes. 118a Sanh. 98b Mek., Beshallaḥ , Wayassa' , 4,5 or , Matthew 24:8 Mark 13:9 , taken from Hosea 13:13 ). The idea that the great redemption shall be preceded by great distress, darkness, and moral decline seems to be based on such prophetic passages as Hosea 13:13 et seq. Joel 2:10 et seq. Micah 7:1-6 Zechariah 14:6 et seq. Daniel 12:1 . The view itself, however, is not that of the Prophets, whose outlook is altogether optimistic and eudemonistic (Isaiah 11:1-9 , 65:17-25 ), but more in accordance with the older non-Jewish belief in a constant decline of the world, from the golden and silver to the brass and iron age, until it ends in a final cataclysm or conflagration, contemplated alike by old Teuton and Greek legend. It was particularly owing to Persian influence that the contrast between this world, in which evil, death, and sin prevail, and the future world, "which is altogether good" (Tamid l.c. ), was so strongly emphasized, and the view prevailed that the transition from the one to the other could be brought about only through a great crisis, the signs of decay of a dying world and the birth-throes of a new one to be ushered into existence. Persian eschatology had no difficulty in utilizing old mythological and cosmological material from Babylonia in picturing the distress and disorder of the last days of the world (Bundahis, 30:18 et seq. Plutarch, l.c. 47 Bahman, l.c. 2:23 et seq. , 3:60) Jewish eschatology had to borrow the same elsewhere or give Biblical terms and passages a new meaning so as to make all terrestrial and celestial powers appear as participants in the final catastrophe. This world, owing to the sin of the first man (II Esd. 4:30), or through the fall of the angels (Enoch, vi.-xi.), has been laden with curses and is under the sway of the power of evil, and the end will accordingly be a combat of God with these powers of evil either in the heavens above or on earth (Isaiah 24:21 et seq. , 25:7, 27:1 Daniel 7:11 , 8:9 Book of Jubilees, 23:29 Test. Patr., Asher, 7, Daniel 5 Assumptio Mosis, 10:1 Psalms of Song of Solomon 2:25 et seq. and see Gunkel, "Schö pfung und Chaos," pp. 171-398). The whole world, then, appears as in a state of rebellion before its downfall. A description of these Messianic woes is given in the Book of Jubilees, 20:11-25 Sibyllines, 2:154 et seq. , 3:796 et seq. Enoch, 99:4 et seq. , c. 1 et seq. II Esd. v.-vi. Syriac Apoc. Baruch xxv.-xxvii., 48:31 et seq. , lxx. Matthew 24:6-29 Revelation 6 -ix. Soṭ ah 9:15 Derek Ereẓ Zuṭ a x. Sanh. 96b-97a. "A third part of all the world's woes will come in the generation of the Messiah" (Midr. Teh. Psalm 2:9 ). In all these passages evil portents are predicted, such as visions of swords, of blood, and of warfare in the sky (Sibyllines, 3:795 comp. Luke 21:21 Josephus, "B. J.", 6:5, § 3), disorder in the whole celestial system (Enoch,lxxx:4-7 II Esd. 5:4 comp. Amos 8:9 Joel 2:10 ), in the produce of the earth (Enoch, 80:2 Book of Jubilees, 23:18 II Esd. 6:22 Sibyllines, 3:539), and in human progeny (Book of Jubilees, 23:25 Sibyllines, 2:154 et seq. II Esd. 5:8, 6:21). Birds and beasts, trees, stones, and wells will cease to act in harmony with nature (II Esd. 5:6-8, 6:24).

Particularly prominent among the plagues of the time, of which Baruch 28:2-3 counts twelve, will be "the sword, famine, earthquake, and fire" according to Book of Jubilees, 23:13, "illness and pain, frost and fever, famine and death, sword and captivity" but greater than the terror and havoc caused by the elements will be the moral corruption and perversion, the wickedness and unchastity anticipated in prophetic visions, and the power of evil spirits (Syriac Apoc. Baruch, l.c. and 70:2-8 Book of Jubilees, 23:13-19). This view of the prevalence of the spirit of evil and seduction to sin in the last days received special emphasis in the Ḥ asidean schools hence the striking resemblance between the tannaitic and the apocalyptic picture of the time preceding the Messianic advent: "In the last days false prophets [pseudo-Messiahs] and corrupters will increase and sheep be turned into wolves, love into hatred lawlessness [see Belial ] will prevail, causing men to hate, persecute, and deliver up each other and Satan, ' the world-deceiver' (see Antichrist ), will in the guise of the Son of God perform miracles, and as ruler of the earth commit unheard-of crimes" ("Didache," 16:3 et seq. Sibyllines, 2:165 et seq. , 3:63 Matthew 24:5-12 II Tim. 3:1 et seq. ). The rabbinic description is similar: "The footsteps of the Messiah [, taken from Psalm 89:52 comp. the term , "the last days of the rule of Esau"="Edom— Rome" II Esd. 6:8-10 comp. Gen. R. lxiii. Yalḳ ut and Midrash ha-Gadol, ed. Schechter, on Genesis 25:26 Pirḳ e R. El. xxxii.] are seen in the turning of the schoolhouse into a brothel, the desolation of Galilee and Gaulanitis, the going about of the scribes and saints as despised beggars, the insolence and lawlessness of the people, the disrespect of the younger generation toward the older, and the turning of the rulers to heresy" (Soṭ ah 9:15 Derek Ereẓ Zuṭ a x. Sanh. 97b Cant. R. 2:13 Ket. 112b in these passages amoraim of the second and third centuries are often credited with the views of tannaim of the first comp. also Shab. 118a with Mek., Beshallaḥ , l.c. ). Simon ben Yoḥ ai (comp. Derek Ereẓ Zuṭ a x. with Sanh. l.c. ) counts seven periods of tribulation preceding the advent of the son of David. The Abraham Apocalypse (xxx.) mentions ten plagues as being prepared for the heathen of the time: (1) distress (2) conflagration (3) pestilence among beasts (4) famine (5) earthquakes and wars (6) hail and frost (7) wild beasts (8) pestilence and death among men (9) destruction and flight (comp. Isaiah 26:20 Zechariah 14:5 ) and (10) noises and rumblings (comp. in the sixth period of Simon b. Yoḥ ai comp. Test. Patr., Levi, 17, where also seven periods precede the kingdom of God).

The War of Gog and Magog.
An important part in the eschatological drama is assigned to Israel's final combat with the combined forces of the heathen nations under the leadership of Gog and Magog, barbarian tribes of the North (Ezek. xxxviii-xxxix. see Gog and Magog ). Assembled for a fierce attack upon Israel in the mountains near Jerusalem, they will suffer a terrible and crushing defeat, and Israel's land will thenceforth forever remain the seat of God's kingdom. Whether originally identical or identified only afterward by Biblical interpretation with the battle in the valley of Jehoshaphat (Joel iv. [A.V.iii.] 12 comp. Zechariah 14:2 and Isaiah 25:6 , where the great warfare against heathen armies is spoken of), the warfare against Gog and Magog formed the indispensable prelude to the Messianic era in every apocalyptic vision (Sibyllines, 3:319 et seq. , 512 et seq. , 632 et seq. 5:101 Revelation 20:8 Enoch, 56:5 et seq. , where the place of Gog and Magog is taken by the Parthians and Medes II Esd. 13:5, "a multitude of men without number from the four winds of the earth" Syriac Apoc. Baruch 70:7-10 Targ. Yer. to Numbers 11:26 , 24:17 , Exodus 40:11 , Deuteronomy 32:39 , and Isaiah 33:25 comp. Numbers 24:7 [Septuagint, Γ ὼ γ for "Agag"] see Eldad and Medad ).

R. Eliezer (Mek., Beshallaḥ , l.c. ) mentions the Gog and Magog war together with the Messianic woes and the Last Judgment as the three modes of divine chastisement preceding the millennium. R. Akiba assigns both to the Gog and Magog war and to the Last Judgment a duration of twelve months (' Eduy. 2:10) Lev. R. 19: seven years instead, in accordance with Ezekiel 39:9 Psalm 2:1-9 is referred to the war of Gog and Magog (' Ab. Zarah 3b Ber. 7b Pesiḥ . 9:79a Tan., Noah, ed. Buber, 24 Midr. Teh. Psalm ii.).

The destruction of Gog and Magog's army implies not, as falsely stated by Weber ("Altsynagogale Theologie," 1880, p. 369), followed by Bousset ("Religion des Judenthums," p. 222), the extermination of the Gentile world at the close of the Messianic reign, but the annihilation of the heathen powers who oppose the kingdom of God and the establishing of the Messianic reign (see Enoch, lvi.-lvii., according to which the tribes of Israel are gathered and brought to the Holy Land after the destruction of the heathen hosts Sifre, Deuteronomy 343 and Targ. Yer. to Numbers 11:26 ).

The Gentiles who submit to the Law are expected to survive (Syriac Apoc. Baruch 72:4 Apoc. Abraham, xxxi.) and those nations that did not subjugate Israel will be admitted by the Messiah into the kingdom of God (Pesiḥ . R. 1, after Isaiah 66:23 ). The Messiah is called "Hadrach" (Zechariah 9:1 ), as the one who leads the heathen world to repentance (), though he is tender to Israel and harsh toward the Gentiles (: Cant. R. 7:5 ). The loyalty of the latter will be severely tested (' Ab. Zarah 2b et seq. ), while during the established reign of the Messiah the probation time of the heathen will have passed over (Yeb. 24b). "A third part of the heathen world alone will survive" (Sibyllines, 3:544 et seq. , 5:103, after Zechariah 13:8 in Tan., Shofeṭ im, ed. Buber, 10, this third part is referred to Israel, which alone, as the descendants of the three patriarchs, will escape the fire of Gehenna). According to Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xl. 1,2, it is the leader of the Gog and Magog hosts who will alone survive, to be brought bound before the Messiah on Mount Zion and judged and slain. According to II Esd. 13:9 et seq. , fire will issue forth from the mouth of the Messiah and consume the whole army. This indicates an identification of Gog and Magog with "the wicked one" of Isaiah 11:4 , interpreted as the personification of wickedness, Angro - mainyush (see Armilus ). In Midrash Wayosha' (Jellinek, "B. H." 1:56) Gog is the leader of the seventy-two nations of the world, minus one (Israel), and makes war against the Most High he is smitten down by God. Armilus rises as the last enemy of God and Israel.

Gathering of the Exiles.
The great event preparatory to the reign of the Messiah is the gathering of the exiles, "ḳ ibbuẓ galiyyot." This hope, voiced in Deuteronomy 30:3 Isaiah 11:12 Micah 4:6 , 7:11 Ezekiel 39:27 Zechariah 11:10-12 and Isaiah 35:8 , is made especially impressive by the description in Isaiah 27:13 of the return of all the strayed ones from Assyria and Egypt, and by the announcement that "the Gentiles themselves shall carry Israel's sons and daughters on their arms to Jerusalem with presents for the Lord" ( Isaiah 49:22 , 60:4-9 , 66:20 ). It was accordingly dwelt upon as a miraculous act in the synagogal liturgy and song (Shemoneh ' Esreh Meg. 17a Song of Song of Solomon 11:1 , 17:31 ), as well as in apocalyptic visions (Apoc. Abraham, xxxi. II Esd. 13:13 Matthew 24:31 ). God shall bring them back from the East and the West (Baruch 4:37 , 5:5 et seq. Ecclus. [Sirach] 36:13 Tobit 13:13 ) Elijah shall gather them and the Messiah summon them together (Ecclus. [Sirach] 48:10 Sibyllines, 2:171-187 Song of Song of Solomon 17:26 Targ. Yer. to Exodus 6:18 , 40:9-10 , Numbers 24:7 , Deuteronomy 30:4 , Jeremiah 33:13 ). In wagons carried by the winds the exiles shall be borne along with a mighty noise (Enoch, 57:1 et seq. Zeb. 116a Cant. R. and Haggadat Shir ha-Shirim to Song of Song of Solomon 4:16 Midr. Teh. to Psalm 87:6 ), and a pillar of light shall lead them (Philo, "De Execrationibus," 8-9). The Lost Ten Tribes shall be miraculously brought back across the mighty waters of the River Euphrates (II Esd. 13:39-47 Syriac Apoc. Baruch, lxxvii. Sanh. 10:13 Tan., Miḳ ḳ ez and Shelaḥ , 1:203, 3:79, ed. Buber, after Isaiah 11:15 see Arzareth Sambation Ten Tribes ).

The Days of the Messiah.
The central place in the eschatological system is, as a matter of course, occupied by the advent of the messiah. Nevertheless the days of the Messiah ("yemot ha-Mashiaḥ "), the time when the prophetic predictions regarding the reign of the descendant of David find their fulfilment, do not form the end of the world's history, but are merely the necessary preparatory stage to the kingdom of God ("malkut shamayim"), which, when once established, will last forever (Daniel 7:27 Sibyllines, 3:47 et seq. , 767 et seq. Mek., Beshallaḥ , ' Amaleḳ , end). The Messiah is merely "the chosen one" (Enoch, 45:3, 49:2, 51:3 et seq. ) he causes the people to seek the Lord (Hosea 3:5 Isaiah 11:9 Zechariah 12:8 Ezekiel 34:24 , 37:24 et seq. ), and, as "the Son of God," causes the nations to worship Him (Enoch, 105:2 II Esd. 8:28 et seq. , 13:32-52, 14:9, after Psalm 2:7 , 89:27 et seq. ). The time of his kingdom is therefore limited according to some to three generations (Mek., l.c. , after Exodus 17:16 , ) according to others, to 40 or 70, to 365 or 400 years, or to 1,000,2,000,4,000, or 7,000 years (Sanh. 99a, 97b Pesiḥ . R. 1, end Midr. Teh. xc. 17) the number 400, however, based upon a combination of Genesis 15:13 and Psalm 90:15 (see Pesiḥ . R. 1), is supported by II Esd. 7:28 et seq. , where it is positively stated that after his 400 years' reign the Messiah will die to rise again, after the lapse of a week, with the rest of the righteous in the world's regeneration. It is probably to emphasize his human character that the Messiah is frequently called the "Son of Man" (Daniel 8:13 Enoch, 46:2 et seq. , 48:2, 62:7 See Man, Son of ). For it is in order to fulfil the designs of God for Israel and the whole race of man that he is to appear as the triumphant warrior-king to subjugate the nations (Sibyllines, 3:653-655), to lead in the war against Gog and Magog (II Esd. 13:32 Targ. Yer. to Numbers 24:17,20 ), to annihilate all the powers of wickedness and idolatry, cleanse the Holy Land and city from all heathen elements, build the new house of the Lord "pure and holy," and become the Redeemer of Israel (Syriac Apoc. Baruch 39:7 et seq. , 72:2 Song of Song of Solomon 17:21-30 Targ. Yer. to Genesis 49:11 , Exodus 40:9 , Numbers 11:16 , Isaiah 10:27 comp. Philo, "De Præ miis et Pœ nis," with reference to Numbers 24:7 ): "he is to redeem the entire creation by chastising the evil-doers and making the nations from all the ends of the world see the glory of God" (II Esd. 13:26-38 Song of Song of Solomon 17:31 ). "Free from sin, from desire for wealth or power, a pure, wise, and holy king imbued with the spirit of God, he will lead all to righteousness and holiness (Song of Song of Solomon 17:32-43 Sibyllines, 3:49, 5:414 et seq. Test. Patr., Levi, 18 Midr. Teh. 72:12 Targ. Yer. to Genesis 49:12 , and Isaiah 11:2 , 41:1 ).

Time of Universal Peace.
The Messianic time, accordingly, means first of all the cessation of all subjection of Israel by other powers (, Ber. 34b Sanh. 91b), while the kingdoms and nations will bring tributes to the Messiah (Pes. 118b Gen. R. lxxviii. Tan., Yelamdenu, Shofeṭ im Sibyllines, 3:350, 4:145, all based upon Psalm 72:10 and 68:32) furthermore, it will be a time of conversion of the heathen world to monotheism ( Tobit 14:6 Sibyllines, 3:616,624, 716 et seq. Enoch, 48:4 et seq. ' Ab. Zarah 24a, after Zephaniah 3:9 ), though the Holy Land itself will not be inhabited by strangers (Song of Song of Solomon 17:28 Sibyllines, 5:264 Book of Jubilees, 1. 5). Both earth and man will be blessed with wondrous fertility and vigor (Enoch, 10:17-19, "They will live until they have a thousand children" Sibyllines, 3:620 et seq. , 743 Syriac Apoc. Baruch 29:5 comp. Papias' description of the millennium given as coming directly from Jesus, in Irenæ us, "Adversus Hæ reses," 5:33,3-4 Ket. 111b Shab. 30b, "The earth will produce new fruits daily, women will bear children daily, and the land will yield loaves of bread and garments of silk," all with reference to Psalm 72:16 Deuteronomy 32:1 Genesis 49:11 comp. Targ. Yer.). The days of the youth of the earth will be renewed people will again reach the age of 1,000 years (Book of Jubilees, 30:27 comp. Isaiah 65:20 ) the birth of children will be free from pain (Syriac Apoc. Baruch 73:60 , after Isaiah 13:8 Philo, "De Præ miis et Pœ nis," 15 et seq. ) there will no longer be strife and illness, plague or trouble, but peace, health, and joy (Enoch, 10:16-22 Sibyllines, 3:371 Syriac Apoc. Baruch 73:1-5 ). All physical ailments and defects will be healed (Gen. R. xcv. Pesiḥ . R. 42 [ed. Friedmann, p. 177, note] Midr. Teh. 146:8 Eccl. R. 1:9 , after Isaiah 35:6 comp. Matthew 11:5 ). A spiritual regeneration will also take place, and Israel's sons and daughters will prophesy (Num. R. xv., after Joel 3:1 [A. V. 2:28], a passage which contradicts the statement of Bousset, l.c. p. 229).

The Cosmic Characters of the Messianic Time.
Jewish theology always insisted on drawing a sharp line between the Messianic days and the final days of God's sole kingdom. Hence the characteristic baraita counting ten world-rulers, beginning with God before Creation, then naming, Nimrod, Joseph, Solomon, Ahab, Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus, Alexander the Great, the Messiah, and ending with God last as He was the first (Pirḳ e R. El. xi. Meg. 11a is incomplete). There are, however, in the personality of the Messiah supernatural elements adopted from the Persian Soshians ("Savior") which lent to the whole Messianic age a specifically cosmic character. An offspring of Zoroaster, born miraculously by a virgin of a seed hidden in a lake for thousands of years, Soshians is, together with a number of associates, six, or seven, or thirty, to bring about the resurrection, slay Angro-mainyush and his hosts of demons, judge the risen dead, giving each his due reward, and finally renew the whole world (Bundahis, xxx. Windischmann, "Zoroastrische Studien," 1863, pp. 231 et seq. Bö cklen, "Die Verwandtschaft der Jü dischchristlichen mit der Parsischen Eschatologie," 1902, pp. 91 et seq. ). Similarly, the Messiah is a being existing from before Creation (Gen. R. i. Pesiḥ . R. 33 Pirḳ e R. El. iii. Pes. 54a, based on Psalm 72:17 ), and kept hidden for thousands of years (Enoch, 46:2 et seq. , 48:6, 62:7 II Esd. 12:32, 13:26 Syriac Apoc. Baruch, xxix. Midr. Teh. xxi. Targ. to Micah 4:8 ). He comes "from a strange seed" (: Gen. R. xxiii., with reference to Genesis 4:25 Gen. R. li., with reference to Genesis 19:34 Gen. R. lxxxv. Tan., Wayesheb, ed. Buber, 13, with reference to Genesis 38:29 comp. Matthew 1:3 ) or from the North (, which may also mean "concealment": Lev. R. ix. Num. R. xiii., after Isaiah 41:25 comp. John 7:27 ).

The Messiah's immortal companions reappear with him (II Esd. 13:52, 14:9 comp. 6:26). Derek Ereẓ Zuṭ a i. mentions nine immortals (see Kohler, in "J. Q. R." 5:407-419, and comp. the transposed [hidden] righteous ones in Mandä an lore Brand, "Die Mandä ische Religion," 1889, p. 38). They are probably identical with "the righteous who raise the dead in the Messianic time" (Pes. 68a). Prominent among the companions of the Messiah are: (1) Elijah the prophet (see Elijah in Rabbinical Literature ), who is expected as high priest to anoint the Messiah (Justin, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," viii., xlix. comp. Targ. to Exodus 40:10 John 1:21 ) to bring about Israel's repentance (Pirḳ e R. El. xliii.) and reunion (Targ. Yer. to Deuteronomy 30:4 Sibyllines, 5:187 et seq. ), and finally the resurrection of the dead (Yer. Shab. 1:5-3c Sheḳ . 3:47c Agadat Shir ha-Shirim, ed. Schechter, to Song of Song of Solomon 7:14 ) he will also bring to light again the hidden vessels of Moses' time (Mek., Beshauah, Wayassa' , 5 Syriac Apoc. Baruch 6:8 comp., however, Num. R. xviii.: "the Messiah will disclose these") (2) Moses, who will reappear with Elijah (Deut. R. iii. Targ. Yer. to Exodus 12:42 comp. Ex. R. 18: Luke 9:30 ) (3) Jeremiah (II Macc. 15:14 Matthew 16:14 ) (4) Isaiah (II Esd. 2:18) (5) Baruch (Syriac Apoc. Baruch 6:8 , 13:3, 25:1, 46:2) (6) Ezra (II Esd. 14:9) (7) Enoch (Enoch, xc. 31 Evangelium Nicodemi, xxv.), and others (Luke 9:8 comp. also Septuagint to Job, end). The "four smiths" in the vision of Zechariah 2:3 (i:20, R. V.) were referred by the Rabbis to the four chiefs, or associates, of the Messianic time Elijah and the Messiah, Melchizedek and the "Anointed for the War" (Messiah ben Joseph: Pesiḥ . 5:51a comp. Suk. 55b). The "seven shepherds and the eight princes" ( Micah 5:4 [A. 5:5]) are taken to be: Adam, Seth, Methuselah (Enoch was stricken from the list of the saints in post-Christian times), Abraham, Jacob, and Moses, with David in the middle, forming the set of "shepherds" Jesse, Saul, Samuel (?), Amos (?), Hezekiah, Zedekiah, Elijah, and the Messiah, forming the set of "princes" (Suk. 52b). These, fifteen in number, correspond to the fifteen men and women in the company of the Persian Soshians. The Coptic Elias Apocalypse (xxxvii., translated by Steindorf), speaks of sixty companions of the Messiah (see Bousset, l.c. p. 221).

The Messiah of the Tribe of Joseph.
The origin and character of the Messiah of the tribe of Joseph, or Ephraim, are rather obscure. It seems that the assumed superhuman character of the Messiah appeared to be in conflict with the tradition that spoke of his death, and therefore the figure of a Messiah who would come from the tribe of Joseph, or Ephraim, instead of from Judah, and who would willingly undergo suffering for his nation and fall as victim in the Gog and Magog war, was created by the haggadists (see Pesik. R. 37 comp. 34.). To him was referred the passage, "They shall look unto him whom they have pierced and mourn for him" (Zechariah 12:10 , Hebr. Suk. 52a), as well as the fifty-third chapter of Isaiah (see Justin, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," lxviii. and xc. comp. Sanh. 98b, "the Messiah's name is ' The Leper' [' ḥ iwwara' comp. Isaiah 53:4 ] the passage quoted in Martini, "Pugio Fidei," p. 417, cited by Gfrö rer [l.c. 267] and others, is scarcely genuine see Eppstein, "Bereshit Rabbati," 1888, p. 26). The older haggadah referred also "the wild ox" who with his horns will "push the people to the ends of the earth" ( Deuteronomy 33:17 , Hebr.) to the Ephraimite Messiah (Gen. R. lxxv. comp. Num. R. 14: Messiah from the tribe of Ephraim falls in the battle with Gog and Magog, whereas the Messiah from the house of David kills the superhuman hostile leader (Angro-mainyush) with the breath of his mouth then he is universally recognized as king (Suk. 52a comp. Targ. Yer. to Exodus 40:9,11 Targ. to Isaiah 11:4 , Song of Song of Solomon 4:5 Sefer Zerubbabel, in Jellinek, "B. H." 2:56, where he is introduced with the name of Nehemiah b. Ḥ ushiel comp. l.c. 60 et seq. , 3:80 et seq. ).

"Great will be the suffering the Messiah of the tribe of Ephraim has to undergo for seven years at the hand of the nations, who lay iron beams upon him to crush him so that his cries reach heaven but he willingly submits for the sake of his people, not only those living, but also the dead, for all those who died since Adam and God places the four beasts of the heavenly throne-chariot at his disposal to bring about the great work of resurrection and regeneration against all the celestial antagonists" (Pesiḥ . R. 36). The Patriarchs will rise from their graves in Nisan and pay homage to his greatness as the suffering Messiah, and when the nations (104 kingdoms) put him in shackles in the prison-house and make sport of him, as is described in Psalm 22:8-16 , God will address him with the words "Ephraim, My dear son, child of My comfort, I have great compassion on thee" (Jeremiah 31:20 , Hebr.), assuring him that "with the breath of his mouth he shall slay the wicked one" (Isaiah 11:4 ) and He will surround him with a sevenfold canopy of precious stones, place streams of wine, honey, milk, and balsam at his feet, fan him with all the fragrant breezes of paradise, and then tell the saints that admire and pity him that he has not gone through half the suffering imposed upon him from the world's beginning (Pesiḥ . R. 37). The haggadists, however, did not always clearly discriminate between the Ephraimite Messiah, who falls a victim, and the son of David, who is glorified as victor and receives the tributes of the nations (Midr. Teh. 18:5, where the former is meant as being the one "insulted" according to Psalm 89:51 [A. 5:52] comp. Targ. Yer. to Numbers 11:26 , and Midr. Teh. 87:6, where the two Messiahs are mentioned together). According to Tan. Yelamdenu, Shofeṭ im (end), the nations will first bring tributes to the Messiah then, seized by a spirit of confusion ("ruaḥ tezazit"), they will rebel and make war against him but he will burn them with the breath of his mouth and none but Israel will remain (that is, on the battle-field: this is misunderstood by Weber, l.c. comp. II Esd. 13:9).

In the later apocalyptic literature the Ephraimite Messiah is introduced by the name of Nehemiah ben Ḥ ushiel, and the victorious Messiah as Menahem ben ' Ammi El ("Comforter, son of the people of God": Jellinek, "B. H." 2:56,60 et al. ). It appears that the eschatologists were anxious to discriminate between the fourth heathen power personified in Edom (Rome) the wicked, over whom the Ephraimite Messiah alone is destined to carry victory (Pesiḥ . R. 12 Gen. R. lxxiii. B. B. 123b), and the Gog and Magog army, over which the son of David was to triumph while the son of Ephraim fell (see Otot ha-Mashiaḥ , Jellinek, l.c. ). While the fall of the wicked kingdom (Rome) was taken to be the beginning of the rise of the kingdom of God (Pesiḥ . 5:51a), the belief was that between the fall of the empire of Edom = Rome and the defeat of the Gog and Magog army there would be a long interval (see Pesiḥ . 22:148a comp. Pesiḥ . R. 37 [ed. Friedmann, 163b, note]).

According to R. Eliezer of Modin (Mek., Beshallaḥ , Wayassa' , 4 [ed. Weiss, p. 58b, note]), the Messiah is simply to restore the reign of the Davidic dynasty ("malkut bet Dawid" comp. Maimonides, Commentary to Sanh. xi.: "The Messiah, the son of David, will die, and his son and grandson will follow him" on the other hand, Baḥ ya ben Joseph in his commentary to Genesis 11:11 says: "The Messiah will not die") also "the Aaronitic priesthood and Levitic service."

The New Jerusalem.
The apocalyptic writers and many rabbis who took a less sober view of the Messianic future expected a new Jerusalem built of sapphire, gold, and precious stones, with gates, walls, and towers of wondrous size and splendor (Tobit 13:15 , 14:4 Revelation 21:9-21 Sibyllines, 3:657 et seq. , 5:250 et seq. , 420 et seq. B. B. 75a Pes. 50a Pesiḥ . 20:143a Pesiḥ . R. 32 Midr. Teh. lxxxvii. in accordance with Isaiah 54:11 et seq. , 60:10 Haggai 2:7 Zechariah 2:8 ). The "new" or "upper Jerusalem" (Copyright Statement
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Bibliography Information
Singer, Isidore, Ph.D, Projector and Managing Editor. Entry for 'Eschatology'. 1901 The Jewish Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/tje/e/eschatology.html. 1901.

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