corner graphic

Bible Encyclopedias

The 1901 Jewish Encyclopedia


Resource Toolbox
Additional Links

A form of praise or blessing greatly in vogue in medieval Hebrew literature. In ancient times the invocation was an essential part of the various forms of salutation, many instances of which are found in Biblical, and especially in post-Biblical, literature. They recognize the divine presence, invoke the divine benediction, and express the wish that the object of the salutation may enjoy a long at happy life and general prosperity. To them belong also the special blessings invoked upon arriving and departing travelers and upon the sick, and those recited upon extraordinary occasions, joyful or otherwise— upon drinking wine, upon sneezing, and upon the completion of a written communication. See Asusa .

Invocations for the Living.
With the exception of few formulas used when mentioning the name of the Lord ( ), in vocations, as a rule, refer to persons, and fall into two main groups, those upon the living, and those upon the dead. In the first group the oldest formula occurs frequently in the Mishnah ( = "may he be remembered for good!"). This formula, however, afterward came to be invoked mainly upon the dead. From geonic times are derived expressions like and [, abbreviated the latter abbreviation, having gained the signification of the term ("his light"), evolved into . Later were added also with the addition ).

The wish that the one saluted may enjoy a long and happy life was conveyed in the formula , then, more fully, in , with ), or , with with the further addition ). The Spanish or Oriental Jews write ). In the case of prominent men, particularly those that wielded worldly power, non-Jewish rulers included, the formula was, and still is, used ( is a Biblical expression see Daniel 11:21 1Chronicles 16:27 , 29:25 ). Besides these special phrases, several Bible verses, generally in abbreviated and altered form, were employed, such as, for instance, those from Exodus 18:4 : (see Psalm 146:5 : ) Deuteronomy 33:24 : () Isaiah 53:10 : with the appended ) Psalm 22:27 : 24:5: ) 41:3: 72:17: Proverbs 3:2 : (from which came: or perhaps, in order to obtain this ingenious abbreviation, the letter ו of and the word have been omitted, and the eulogy runs: ) Ezra 1:3 : , etc. In the case of women, from Judges 5:24 is recited: and transposed ) were customary. On occasion of mentioning localities use was made of the eulogy formed after Numbers 21:27 : (, with ) so, likewise, the adaptations from Psalm 48:9 and 87:5: (with ) and , were employed.

Invocations for the Dead.
Eulogies upon the dead contain an expression of the desire that the life of the departed may prove to have been a blessing, that their earthly remains may have peace, and that their souls have entered the realms of bliss, are partaking there of heavenly blessings and of the raptures of Eden, and are face to face with the glory of God. The utterance of some of these eulogies such as the phrase (briefly: ) was early enjoined upon children when naming their deceased father, and upon pupils when naming their deceased teacher. The following forms of eulogy, each with its variations, have gradually developed: , (Proverbs 10:7 , compare Psalm 112:6 abbreviated in combination these eulogies upon the dead occur in numerous variations, among which and ) is the most complete formula in transpositions with = Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography Information
Singer, Isidore, Ph.D, Projector and Managing Editor. Entry for 'Invocation'. 1901 The Jewish Encyclopedia. 1901.

Search for…
Enter query in the box:
Choose a letter to browse:
A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M 
N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Y  Z 

Prev Entry
Next Entry
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology