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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #1223 - διά

Word Origin
a primary preposition denoting the channel of an act
Parts of Speech
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. through
    1. of place
      1. with
      2. in
    2. of time
      1. throughout
      2. during
    3. of means
      1. by
      2. by the means of
  2. through
    1. the ground or reason by which something is or is not done
      1. by reason of
      2. on account of
      3. because of for this reason
      4. therefore
      5. on this account
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (646) NAS (281) HCS (640)
Matthew 49
Mark 27
Luke 31
John 52
Acts 69
Romans 70
1 Corinthians 36
2 Corinthians 40
Galatians 18
Ephesians 22
Philippians 12
Colossians 14
1 Thessalonians 9
2 Thessalonians 7
1 Timothy 6
2 Timothy 9
Titus 3
Philemon 5
Hebrews 53
James 2
1 Peter 18
2 Peter 6
1 John 5
2 John 2
3 John 2
Revelation 13
Matthew 50
Mark 25
Luke 32
John 44
Acts 45
Romans 59
1 Corinthians 27
2 Corinthians 26
Galatians 18
Ephesians 18
Philippians 8
Colossians 9
1 Thessalonians 7
2 Thessalonians 3
1 Timothy 6
2 Timothy 7
Titus 1
Philemon 4
Hebrews 38
James 1
1 Peter 14
2 Peter 4
1 John 4
2 John 1
3 John 1
Jude 1
Revelation 13
Matthew 58
Mark 30
Luke 37
John 57
Acts 67
Romans 90
1 Corinthians 42
2 Corinthians 42
Galatians 18
Ephesians 21
Philippians 14
Colossians 13
1 Thessalonians 10
2 Thessalonians 10
1 Timothy 6
2 Timothy 12
Titus 3
Philemon 4
Hebrews 54
James 2
1 Peter 16
2 Peter 7
1 John 5
2 John 2
3 John 2
Jude 1
Revelation 17
PREP 673
PREP 571
PREP 680
PREP 584
V-AAS-3S 1
V-API-3S 1
V-FAI-3S 3
PREP 735

Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


poet. διαί (Aeol. ζά, q.v.), Pr governing gen. and acc. Rad. sense, through; never anastroph. [Prop. δῐᾰ: but Hom. uses at the beginning of a line, Il. 3.357, 4.135, al.: also , metri gr., freq. in Hom., for which A. uses διαί in lyr., Ag. 448, al.]


I of Place or Space:

1 of motion in a line, from one end to the other, right through, in Hom. freq. of the effect of weapons, διὰ μὲν ἀσπίδος ἦλθε.. ἔγχος καὶ διὰ θώρηκος.. Il. 3.357; δουρὶ βάλεν Δάμασον κυνέης διά 12.183; δι' ὤμου.. ἔγχος ἦλθεν 4.481; in Prose, τιτρώσκειν διὰ τοῦ θώρακος X. An. 1.8.26; διὰ τοῦ ὀρόφου ἐφαίνετο πῦρ ib. 7.4.16: also of persons, διὰ Σκαιῶν πεδίονδ' ἔχον ὠκέας ἵππους out through the Scaean gate, Il. 3.263; δι' ἠέρος αἰθέρ' ἵκανεν quite through the lower air even to the ether, Il. 14.288, cf. 2.458; διὰ Τρώων πέτετο straight through them, 13.755; δι' ὄμματος.. λείβων δάκρυον S. OC 1250, etc.: also in Compos. with πρό and ἐκ, v. διαπρό, διέκ: in adverbial phrases, διὰ πασῶν (sc. χορδῶν), v. διαπασῶν: διὰ πάσης throughout, Th. 1.14; διὰ κενῆς idly, Id. 4.126, etc. (cf. 111.1.c).

2. of motion through a space, but not in a line, throughout, ouer, ἑπόμεσθα διὰ πεδίοιο Il. 11.754; δι' ὄρεσφι 10.185, al.; ὀδύνη διὰ χροὸς ἦλθε through all his frame, 11.398; τεῦχε βοὴν διὰ ἄστεος Od. 10.118; δι' ὁμίλου Il. 6.226, etc.; θορύβου διὰ τῶν τάξεων ἰόντος X. An. 1.8.16, cf. 2.4.26, etc.; later, in quoting an authority, ἱστορεῖ δ. τῆς δευτέρας in the course of.., Ath. 10.438b.

3. in the midst of, Il. 9.468; κεῖτο τανυσσάμενος δ. μήλων Od. 9.298; between, δ. τῶν πλευρέων ταμόντα Hp. Morb. 2.61: hence, of pre-eminence, ἔπρεπε καὶ δ. πάντων Il. 12.104; τετίμακε δι' ἀνθρώπων Pi. I. 4(3).37; εὐδοκιμέοντι δ. πάντων Hdt. 6.63, cf. 1.25, etc.

4. in Prose, sts. of extension, along, παρήκει δ. τῆσδε τῆς θαλάσσης ἡ ἀκτή Id. 4.39 (but πέταται δ. θαλάσσας across the sea, Pi. N. 6.48); λόφος, δι' οὗ τὸ σταύρωμα περιεβέβληντο X. HG 7.4.22.

5. in Prose, of Intervals of Space, δ. τριήκοντα δόμων at intervals of thirty layers, i. e. after every thirtieth layer, Hdt. 1.179; δ. δέκα ἐπάλξεων at every tenth battlement, Th. 3.21; cf. infr. 11.3: of a single interval, δ. πέντε σταδίων at a distance of five stades, Hdt. 7.30, cf. 198; δ. τοσούτου μᾶλλον ἢ δ. πολλῶν ἡμερῶν ὁδοῦ at so short a distance, etc., Th. 2.29; δ. πολλοῦ at a great distance apart, Id. 3.94; δ. πλείστου Id. 2.97; δι' ἐλάσσονος Id. 3.51; ὕδατα δ. μακροῦ ἀλόμενα Hp. Aër. 9, etc.

II of Time,

1 of duration from one end of a period to the other, throughout, δ. παντὸς [τοῦ χρόνου ] Hdt. 9.13; δι' ὅλου τοῦ αἰῶνος Th. 1.70; δι' αἰῶνος S. El. 1024; δι' ἡμέρας ὅλης Ar. Pax 27; δι' ὅλης τῆς νυκτός X. An. 4.2.4, etc.: without an Adj., δι' ἡμέρης all day long, Hdt. 1.97; δ. νυκτός Th. 2.4, X. An. 4.6.22 (but δ. νυκτός in the course of the night, by night, Acts 5:19, PRyl. 138.15 (i A. D.), etc.); δ. νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας Pl. R. 343b; δι' ἐνιαυτοῦ, δι' ἔτους, Ar. Fr. 569.8, V. 1058; δ. βίου Pl. Smp. 183e, etc.; δ. τέλους from beginning to end, A. Pr. 275, Pl. R. 519c, etc.: with Adjs. alone, δ. παντός continually, A. Ch. 862 (lyr.), etc.; δι' ὀλίγου for a short time, Th. 1.77; δ. μακροῦ E. Hec. 320; ὁ δ. μέσου χρόνος Hdt. 8.27.

2. of the interval which has passed between two points of Time, δ. χρόνου πολλοῦ or δ. πολλοῦ χρ. after a long time, Id. 3.27, Ar. Pl. 1045; δ. μακρῶν χρόνων Pl. Ti. 22d: without an Adj., δ. χρόνου after a time, S. Ph. 758, X. Cyr. 1.4.28, etc.; δι' ἡμερῶν after several days, Mark 2:1; and with Adjs. alone, δι' ὀλίγου Th. 5.14; οὐ δ. μακροῦ Id. 6.15, 91; δ. πολλοῦ Luc. Nigr. 2, etc.: with Numerals, δι' ἐτέων εἴκοσι Hdt. 6.118, cf. OGI 56.38 (iii B. C.), etc.: but δ. τῆς ἑβδόμης till the seventh day, Luc. Hist.Conscr. 21: also distributively, χρόνος δ. χρόνου προὔβαινε time after time, S. Ph. 285; ἄλλος δι' ἄλλου E. Andr. 1248.

3. of successive Intervals, δ. τρίτης ἡμέρης every other day, Hdt. 2.37; δ. τρίτου ἔτεος ib. 4, etc.; δ. πεντετηρίδος every four years (with inclusive reckoning), Id. 3.97; δι' ἔτους πέμπτου, of the Olympic games, Ar. Pl. 584 (but δι' ἑνδεκάτου ἔτεος in the course of the eleventh year, Hdt. 1.62).


1. causal, through, by, of the Agent, δι' ἀλλέλων or -ου ἐπικηρυκεύεσθαι, ποιεῖσθαι, by the mouth of.., Id. 1.69, 6.4, cf. 1.113; δι' ἑρμηνέως λέγειν X. An. 2.3.17, etc.; τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑπὸ Κυρίου δ. τοῦ προφήτου.Matthew 1:22; δι' ἑκόντων ἀλλ' οὐ δ. βίας ποιεῖσθαι Pl. Phlb. 58b; πεσόντ' ἀλλοτρίας διαὶ γυναικός by her doing, A. Ag. 448 (lyr.); ἐκ θεῶν γεγονὼς δ. βασιλέων πεφυκώς X. Cyr. 7.2.24; δι' ἑαυτοῦ ποιεῖν τι of oneself, not by another's agency, ib. 1.1.4, etc.; but also, by oneself alone, unassisted, D. 15.14, cf. 22.38. of the Instrument or Means, δ. χειρῶν by hand (prop. by holding between the hands), δι' ὁσίων χ. θιγών S. OC 470; also δ. χερῶν λαβεῖν, δ. χειρὸς ἔχειν in the hand, Id. Ant. 916, 1258 (but τὰ τῶν ξυμμάχων δ. χειρὸς ἔχειν to keep a firm hand on, Th. 2.13); δ. στέρνων ἔχειν S. Ant. 639; ἡ ἀκούουσα πηγὴ δι' ὤτων Id. OT 1387; δ. στόματος ἔχειν X. Cyr. 1.4.25; δ. μνήμης ἔχειν Luc. Cat. 9; αἱ δ. τοῦ σώματος ἡδοναί X. Mem. 1.5.6; δ. λόγων συγγίγνεσθαι to hold intercourse by word, Pl. Plt. 272b; δ. λόγου ἀπαγγέλλειν Acts 15:27; δι' ἐπιστολῶν 2 Corinthians 10:9, POxy. 1070.15 (iii A. D.). of Manner (where διά with its Noun freq. serves as an Adv.), δ. μέθης ποιήσασθαι τὴν συνουσίαν Pl. Smp. 176e; παίω δι' ὀργῆς through passion, in passion, S. OT 807; δ. τάχους, = ταχέως, Id. Aj. 822, Th. 1.63 (but δ. ταχέων ib. 80, al.); δ. σπουδῆς in haste, hastily, E. Ba. 212; δι' αἰδοῦς with reverence, respectfully, ib. 441; δ. ψευδῶν ἔπη lying words, Id. Hel. 309; αἱ δ. καρτερίας ἐπιμέλειαι long-continued exertions, X. Mem. 2.1.20; δι' ἀκριβείας, δ. πάσης ἀκρ., Pl. Ti. 23d, Lg. 876c; δ. σιγῆς Id. Grg. 450c; δ. ξυμφορῶν ἡ ξύμβασις ἐγένετο Th. 6.10; οὐ δι' αἰνιγμάτων, ἀλλ' ἐναργῶς γέγραπται Aeschin. 3.121; δι' αἵματος, οὐ δ. μέλανος τοὺς νόμους ὁ Δράκων ἔγραψεν Plu. Sol. 17: also with Adjs., δ. βραχέων, δ. μακρῶν τοὺς λόγους ποιεῖσθαι, Isoc. 14.3, Pl. Grg. 449b; ἀποκρίνεσθαι δ. βραχυτάτων ibid. d; cf. infr. IV.

2. in later Prose, of Material out of which a thing is made, κατασκευάζειν εἴδωλα δι' ἐλέφαντος καὶ χρυσοῦ D.S. 17.115; θυσίαι δι' ἀλφίτου καὶ σπονδῆς πεποιημέναι Plu. Numbers 8:1-26; βρώματα δ. μέλιτος καὶ γάλακτος γιγνόμενα Ath. 14.646e; οἶνος δ. βουνίου Dsc. 5.46. διά τινος ἔχειν, εἶναι, γίγνεσθαι, to express conditions or states, ἀγὼν διὰ πάσης ἀγωνίης ἔχων extending through every kind of contest, Hdt. 2.91; δι' ἡσυχίης εἶναι Id. 1.206; δι' ὄχλου εἶναι to be trouble some, Ar. Ec. 888; δ. φόβου εἶναι Th. 6.59; δι' ἀπεχθείας γίγνεσθαι X. Hier. 9.2; ἡ ἐπιμέλεια δ. χάριτος γίγνεται ibid.; δ. μιᾶς γνώμης γίγνεσθαι Isoc. 4.138. with Verbs of motion, δ. μάχης ἐλεύσονται will engage in battle, Hdt. 6.9; ἐλθεῖν Th. 4.92; δ. παντὸς πολέμου, δ. φιλίας ἰέναι τινί, X. An. 3.2.8; δ. δίκης ἰέναι τινί go to law with.., S. Ant. 742, cf. Th. 6.60; δ. τύχης ἰέναι S. OT 773; δι' ὀργῆς ἥκειν Id. OC 905; ἐμαυτῷ δ. λόγων ἀφικόμην I held converse with myself, E. Med. 872; δ. λόγων, δ. γλώσσης ἰέναι come to open speech, Id. Tr. 916, Supp. 112; δ. φιλημάτων ἰέναι come to kissing, Id. Andr. 416; δ. δικαιοσύνης ἰέναι καὶ σωφροσύνης Pl. Prt. 323a, etc.; δ. πυρὸς ἰέναι (v. πῦρ): in pass. sense, δι' ἀπεχθείας ἐλθεῖν τινι to be hated by.., A. Pr. 121 (anap.). with trans. Verbs, δι' αἰτίας ἔχειν or ἄγειν τινά hold in fault, Th. 2.60, Ael. VH 9.32; δι' ὀργῆς ἔχειν τινά Th. 2.37, etc.; δ. φυλακῆς ἔχειν τι Id. 7.8; δι' οἴκτου ἔχειν τινά, δι' αἰσχύνης ἔχειν τι, E. Hec. 851, IT 683; δ. πένθους τὸ γῆρας διάγειν X. Cyr. 4.6.6; δι' οὐδενὸς ποιεῖσθαί τι S. OC 584.


I of Place, only Poet., in same sense as διά c. gen.:

1 through, ἓξ δὲ δ. πτύχας ἦλθε.. χαλκός Il. 7.247; ἤϊξε δ. δρυμὰ.. καὶ ὕλην 11.118, cf. 23.122, etc.; δ. τάφρον ἐλαύνειν across it, 12.62; δ. δώματα ποιπνύοντα 1.600; ἐπὶ χθόνα καὶ δ. πόντον βέβακεν Pi. I. 4(3).41; φεύγειν δ. κῦμ' ἅλιον A. Supp. 14 (anap.).

2. through, among, in, οἴκεον δι' ἄκριας Od. 9.400; ἄραβος δὲ δ. στόμα γίγνετ' ὀδόντων Il. 10.375 (but μῦθον, ὃν.. δ. στόμα.. ἄγοιτο through his mouth, 14.91; so δ. στόμα ὄσσαν ἱεῖσαι Hes. Th. 65; ἀεὶ γὰρ ἡ γυνή σ' ἔχει δ. στόμα Ar. Lys. 855); δ. κρατερὰς ὑσμίνας Hes. Th. 631; νόμοι δι' αἰθέρα τεκνωθέντες S. OT 867 (lyr.). II of Time, also Poet., δ. νύκτα Il. 2.57, etc.; δ. γλυκὺν ὕπνον during sweet sleep, Mosch. 4.91.

III causal:

1 of persons, thanks to, by aid of, νικῆσαι δ... Ἀθήνην Od. 8.520, cf. 13.121; δ. δμῳὰς.. εἷλον 19.154; δ. σε by thy fault or service, S. OC 1129, Ar. Pl. 145, cf. 160, 170: in Prose, by reason of, on account of, δ' ἡμᾶς Th. 1.41, cf. X. An. 7.6.33, D. 18.249; οὐ δι' ἐμαυτόν And. 1.144; so εἰ μὴ διά τινα if it had not been for.., εἰ μὴ δι' ἄνδρας ἀγαθούς Lys. 12.60; Μιλτιάδην εἰς τὸ βάραθρον ἐμβαλεῖν ἐψηφίσαντο, καὶ εἰ μὴ δ. τὸν πρύτανιν ἐνέπεσεν ἄν Pl. Grg. 516e, cf. D. 19.74; εἰ μὴ δ. τὴν ἐκείνου μέλλησιν Th. 2.18, cf. Ar. V. 558; πλέον' ἔλπομαι λόγον Ὀδυσσέος ἢ πάθαν γενέσθαι δι' Ὅμηρον Pi. N. 7.21.

2. of things, to express the Cause, Occasion, or Purpose, δι' ἐμὴν ἰότητα because of my will, Il. 15.41; Διὸς μεγάλου δ. βουλάς Od. 8.82; δι' ἀφραδίας for, through want of thought, 19.523; δι' ἀτασθαλίας 23.67; δι' ἔνδειαν by reason of poverty, X. An. 7.8.6; δ. καῦμα, δ. χειμῶνα, ib. 1.7.6; δι' ἄγνοιαν καὶ ἀμαθίαν Pl. Prt. 360b, etc.: freq. also with neut. Adjs., δ. τί; wherefore?; δ. τοῦτο, δ. ταῦτα on this account; δι' ὅ, δι' ἅ on which account; δ. πολλά for many reasons, etc.

3. = ἕνεκα, to express Purpose, δἰ ἀχθηδόνα for the sake of vexing, Th. 4.40, cf. 5.53; δ. τὴν τούτου σαφήνειαν with a view to clearing this up, Pl. R. 524c, cf. Arist. EN 1172b21; αὐτή δι' αὑτήν for its own sake, Pl. R. 367b, etc.

WITHOUT CASE as Adv. throughout, δ. πρό (v. supr. A.I.I); δ. δ' ἀμπερές Il. 11.377.


I through, right through, of Space, διαβαίνω, διέχω, διιππεύω.

II in different directions, as in διαπέμπω, διαφορέω; of separation, asunder, διαιρέω, διαλύω; of difference or disagreement, at variance, διαφωνέω, διαφέρω; or simply mutual relation, one with another, διαγωνίζομαι, διάδω, διαθέω, διαπίνω, διαφιλοτιμέομαι.

III pre-eminence, διαπρέπω, διαφέρω. completion, to the end, utterly, διεργάζομαι, διαμάχομαι, διαπράττω, διαφθείρω: of Time, διαβιόω. to add strength, thoroughly, out and out, διαγαληνίζω, etc.; cf. ζά. of mixture, between, partly, esp. in Adj., as διάλευκος, διάχρυσος, διάχλωρος, etc. of leaving an interval or breach, διαλείπω, διαναπαύω. (Cogn. with δύο, δίς.)

Thayer's Expanded Definition

διά ("written δἰ before a vowel, except in proper names and 2 Corinthians 5:7; Romans 8:10" Tdf. Proleg., p. 94), akin to δίς and Latindis in composition, properly, denoting a division into two or more parts; a preposition taking the genitive and the accusative. In its use the biblical writers differ in no respect from the Greek; cf. Winer's Grammar, 377ff (353ff); 398 (372)f

A. with the genitive: through;

I. of place;

1. properly, after verbs denoting an extension, or a motion, or an act, that occurs through any place: δἰ ἄλλης ὁδοῦ ἀναχωρεῖν, Matthew 2:12; δἰ ἀνύδρων τόπων, Matthew 12:43; διά τῆς Σαμαρείας, John 4:4; διά τῆς θύρας, John 10:1f; add, Matthew 19:24; Mark 2:23; Mark 10:25; Mark 11:16; Luke 4:30; Luke 5:19; Luke 18:25; 2 Corinthians 11:33; Hebrews 9:11; Hebrews 11:29, etc.; δἰ ὑμῶν, through your city, Romans 15:28; (on διά πάντων, Acts 9:32, see πᾶς, II. 1); διά πάντων, diffusing his saving influence through all, Ephesians 4:6; σῴζεσθαι διά πυρός, 1 Corinthians 3:15; διασῴζεσθαι δἰ ὕδατος, 1 Peter 3:20 (Ev. Nicod. c. 9, p. 568f, Thilo edition (p. 228, Tdf. edition) διά θαλάσσης ὡς διά ξηρᾶς); βλέλπειν δἰ ἐσόπτρου, 1 Corinthians 13:12 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 380 (356)). Add the adverbial phrase δἰ ὅλου from top to bottom, throughout, John 19:23 (metaphorically, in every way, 1 Macc. 6:18). From this use of the preposition has come

2. its tropical use of state or condition in which (properly, passing through which as through a space) one does or suffers something, where we, with a different conception, employ with, in, etc. (German bei, unter, mit): διά γράμματος καί περιτομῆς παραβάτης νόμου , Romans 2:27 (Winers Grammar, 380 (355)); οἱ πιστεύοντες :2di) ἀκροβυστίας who believe, though uncircumcised (see ἀκροβυστία , a.), Romans 4:11; διά προσκόμματος ἐσθίειν , with offence, or so as to be an offence (cf. Winers Grammar, 380 (356), and see πρόσκομμα ), Romans 14:20; διά πίστεως περιπατεῖν , οὐ διά εἴδους (see εἶδος , 1), 2 Corinthians 5:7; τά διά (Lachmann marginal reading (cf. Tr marginal reading) τά ἰδίᾳ (see Meyer at the passage)) τοῦ σώματος ;, done in the body (i. e. while we were clothed with our earthly body (others take διά here instrumentally; see III. 2 below)), 2 Corinthians 5:10; διά πολλῶν δακρύων , 2 Corinthians 2:4; διά δόξης , clothed with glory, 2 Corinthians 3:11; ἔρχεσθαι , ἐισέρχεσθαι διά τίνος with a thing, Hebrews 9:12; 1 John 5:6 (but cf. Winer's Grammar, 380 (355)); δἰ ὑπομονῆς, Romans 8:25 (διά πένθους τό γῆρας διάγειν, Xenophon, Cyril 4, 6, 6; cf. Mattiae ii., p. 1353).

II. of Time (cf. Winer's Grammar, 380 (356); Ellicott or Meyer on Galatians 2:1; Fritzsche as below);

1. of continued time; hence,

a. of the time throughout (during) which anything is done: Matthew 26:61; Mark 14:58; δἰ ὅλης (τῆς R G) νυκτός, Luke 5:5; διά παντός τοῦ ζῆν, Hebrews 2:15; διά παντός (so L WH Tr (except Mark 5:5; Luke 24:53)), or written together διαπαντός (so G T (except in Matt.); cf. Winers Grammar, 46 (45); Lipsius, Gram. Unters., p. 125), continually, always: Matthew 18:10; Mark 5:5; Luke 24:53; Acts 2:25 (from Psalm 15:8 ()); ; Romans 11:10 (from Psalm 68:24 ()); 2 Thessalonians 3:16; Hebrews 9:6; Hebrews 13:15 (often in Greek writings).

b. of the time within which a thing is done: διά τῆς νυκτός (L T Tr WH διά νυκτός), by night, Acts 5:19; Acts 16:9; Acts 17:10; Acts 23:31, (Palaeph. 1, 10); δἰ ἡμερῶν τεσσαράκοντα, repeatedly within the space of forty days, Acts 1:3; — (denying this use of the preposition, C. F. A. Fritzsche in Fritzschiorum Opuscc., p. 164f would refer these instances to the use noted under a. (see Winer's, Ellicott, Meyer as above)).

2. of time elapsed, and which has, so to say, been passed through: Galatians 2:1 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 380 (356)); δἰ ἡμερῶν (some) days having intervened, after (some) days, Mark 2:1; δἰ ἐτῶν πλειόνων, Acts 24:17; examples from Greek authors in Fritzsche on Mark, p. 50; (Winers Grammar, 380 (356); Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. II. 2; Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word, 2; Field, Otium Norv. iii, p. 14).

III. of the Means or Instrument by which anything is effected; because what is done by means of person or thing seems to pass as it were through the same (cf. Winer's Grammar, 378 (354)).

1. of one who is the author of the action as well as its instrument, or of the efficient cause: δἰ αὐτοῦ (i. e. τοῦ Θεοῦ) τά πάντα namely, ἐστιν or ἐγένετο, Romans 11:36; also δἰ οὗ, Hebrews 2:10; δἰ οὗ ἐκλήθητε, 1 Corinthians 1:9; add (Galatians 4:7 L T Tr WH, see below); Hebrews 7:21 ( ἰατρικη πᾶσα διά τοῦ Θεοῦ τούτου, i. e. Aesculapius, κυβερναται, Plato, symp., p. 186 e.; cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. i., p. 15 (and for examples Sophocles Lexicon, under the word, 1)); of him to whom that is due which anyone has or has done; hence equivalent to by the fault of anyone: δἰ οὗ τό σκάνδαλον ἔρχεται, Matthew 18:7; δἰ ἑνός ἀνθρώπου ἁμαρτία ... εἰσῆλθε, Romans 5:12, cf. Romans 5:16-19; ἠσθένει διά τῆς σαρκός, Romans 8:3; by the merit, aid, favor of anyone: ἐν ζωή βασιλεύσουσι διά, etc. Romans 5:17, cf. Romans 5:18; 1 Corinthians 15:21; διά τοῦ Χριστοῦ, and the like: Romans 5:1f Romans 5:11; Acts 10:43; Galatians 4:7 (Rec., but see above); δοκάζειν τόν Θεόν διά Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, 1 Peter 4:11, and εὐχαριστεῖν τῷ Θεῷ διά Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Romans 1:8; Romans 7:25 (where L T Tr WH text χάρις τῷ Θεῷ); Colossians 3:17 — because the possibility both of glorifying God and of giving thanks to him is due to the kindness of Christ: καυχᾶσθαι ἐν τῷ Θεῷ διά Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Romans 5:11; ἀναπαύεσθαι διά τίνος, Philemon 1:7; οἱ πεπιστευκότες διά τῆς χαριστος, Acts 18:27; πολλῆς εἰρήνης τυγχάνοντες διά σου ... διά τῆς σής προνοίας, Acts 24:2 (3); ὑπερνικαν διά τοῦ ἀγαπήσαντος ἡμᾶς, Romans 8:37; περισσεύειν διά τίνος, by the increase which comes from one, Philippians 1:26; 2 Corinthians 1:5; 2 Corinthians 9:12; διά τῆς ὑμῶν δεήσεως, Philippians 1:19; add, Philemon 1:22 Romans 1:12; 2 Corinthians 1:4; Galatians 4:23; 1 Peter 1:5.

2. of the instrument used to accomplish a thing, or of the instrumental cause in the stricter sense: — with the genitive of person by the service, the intervention of, anyone; with the genitive of thing, "by means of with the help of, anything;

a. in passages where a subject expressly mentioned is said to do or to have done a thing by some person or by some thing: Mark 16:20 (τοῦ κυρίου τόν λόγον βεβαιοῦντος διά τῶν σημείων); Luke 1:70; Acts 1:16; Acts 2:22 (τέρασι καί σημείοις, οἷς ἐποίησε δἰ αὐτοῦ Θεός); Acts 8:20; Acts 10:36; Acts 15:28 (γράψαντες διά χειρός αὐτῶν); Acts 20:28; Acts 21:19; Acts 28:25; Romans 2:16; Romans 3:31; Romans 7:13; ( Rec.bez elz L edition min. T WH text); Romans 15:18; Romans 16:18; 1 Corinthians 1:21 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357)); 1 Corinthians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 4:15; 1 Corinthians 6:14; 1 Corinthians 14:9, 19 (R G); ; 2 Corinthians 1:4; 2 Corinthians 4:14 R G; (cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357)); ; Ephesians 1:5; Ephesians 2:16; Colossians 1:20, 22; Colossians 2:8; 1 Thessalonians 4:14; 2 Thessalonians 2:14; Titus 3:5; Hebrews 1:2, 3 (R G); ; Revelation 1:1; γῆ ἐξ ὕδατος (material cause) καί δἰ ὕδατος συνεστῶσα τῷ τοῦ Θεοῦ λόγῳ, 2 Peter 3:5 (Winers Grammar, 419 (390) cf. 217 (204)).

b. in passages in which the author or principal cause is not mentioned, but is easily understood from the nature of the case, or from the context: Romans 1:12; 1 Corinthians 11:12 (cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357)); Philippians 1:20; 1 Thessalonians 3:7; 2 Thessalonians 2:2, 15; Hebrews 11:39 (cf. Winer's Grammar, as above, also § 50, 3); ; 1 Peter 1:7; διά πολλῶν μαρτύρων, by the mediation (intervention) of many witnesses, they being summoned for that purpose (cf. Winers Grammar, 378 (354); A. V. among), 2 Timothy 2:2. Where it is evident from the religious conceptions of the Bible that God is the author or first cause: John 11:4; Acts 5:12; Ephesians 3:10; Ephesians 4:16; Colossians 2:19; 2 Timothy 1:6; Hebrews 10:10; 2 Peter 3:6; σῴζεσθαι διά πίστεως, Ephesians 2:8; συνεγείρεσθαι διά τῆς πίστεως, Colossians 2:12; δικαιοῦσθαι διά τῆς πίστεως, Galatians 2:16, cf. Romans 3:30; in the phrases διά τοῦ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, and the like: John 1:17; John 3:17; Acts 13:38; Romans 1:5; Romans 5:9; 1 Corinthians 15:57; 1 John 4:9; Philippians 1:11; διά τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, 1 Corinthians 15:2; Ephesians 3:6; διά λόγου Θεοῦ, 1 Peter 1:23, cf. 1 Peter 1:3; διά νόμου, Romans 3:27; Romans 4:13; δἰ ἀποκαλύψεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Galatians 1:12, cf. Galatians 1:15f; διά τοῦ (ἁγίου) πνεύματος, Romans 5:5; 1 Corinthians 7:8; Ephesians 3:16; πιστεύειν διά τίνος (see πιστεύω, 1 b. γ), John 1:7; 1 Corinthians 3:5; σημεῖον γέγονε δἰ αὐτῶν, Acts 4:16; λόγος δἰ ἀγγέλων λαληθείς, Hebrews 2:2, cf. Galatians 3:19; νόμος διά Μωϋσέως ἐδόθη, John 1:17; in passages in which something is said to have been spoken through the O. T. prophets, or some one of them (cf. Lightfoot Fresh Revision etc., p. 121f): Matthew 2:5, 17 L T Tr WH, Matthew 2:23; (Matthew 3:3 L T Tr WH); Matthew 4:14; Matthew 8:17; Matthew 12:17; Matthew 21:4; Matthew 24:15; Matthew 27:9; Acts 2:16; or to have been so written: Luke 18:31; with the added mention of the first cause: ὑπό τοῦ κυρίου διά τοῦ προφήτου, Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:15, cf. Luke 1:70; Acts 1:16; Acts 28:25; Romans 1:2; in passages relating to the Logos: πάντα δἰ αὐτοῦ (i. e., through the Divine Logos (cf. Winer's Grammar, 379 (355))) ἐγένετο or ἐκτίσθη: John 1:3; 1 Corinthians 8:6 (where he is expressly distinguished from the first cause: ἐξ αὐτοῦ (Winer's Grammar, 419 (391))); Colossians 1:16 (Winer's Grammar, the passage cited), cf. Hebrews 1:2 (Philo de cherub. § 35). The instrumental cause and the principal are distinguished in 1 Corinthians 11:12 (διά τῆς γυναικός ... ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ); Galatians 1:1 (ἀπ' ἀνθρώπων ... δἰ ἀνθρώπου (cf. Winer's Grammar, 418 (390))).

3. with the genitive of a thing διά is used to denote the manner in which a thing is done, or the formal cause: εἶπε διά παραβολῆς, Luke 8:4; εἶπε δἰ ὁρματος, Acts 18:9; ἀπαγγέλλειν διά λόγου, by word of mouth, Acts 15:27; τῷ λόγῳ δἰ ἐπιστολῶν, 2 Corinthians 10:11, cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:15; πίστις ἐνεργουμένη δἰ ἀγάπης, Galatians 5:6; κεχάρισται δἰ ἐπαγγελίας, Galatians 3:18; δουλεύειν διά τῆς ἀγάπης, Galatians 5:13; ἐπιστέλλειν διά βραχέων, Hebrews 13:22; γράφειν δἰ ὀλίγων, 1 Peter 5:12 (Plato, Gorgias, p. 449 b. διά μακρῶν λόγους ποιεῖσθαι (see ὀλίγος, at the end; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 51, 1 b.)); διά χάρτου καί μέλανος, 2 John 1:12; διά μέλανος καί καλάμου, 3 John 1:13 (Plutarch, Sol. 17, 3). To this head I should refer also the use of διά τίνος in exhortations etc. where one seeks to strengthen his exhortation by the mention of a thing or a person held sacred by those whom he is admonishing (διά equivalent to by an allusion to, by reminding you of (cf. Winer's Grammar, 381 (357))): Romans 12:1 15:30; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 2 Corinthians 10:1; 1 Thessalonians 4:2 (yet cf. Winer's Grammar, 379 (355) note); 2 Thessalonians 3:12 R G.

B. with the accusative (Winer's Grammar, 398f (372f)).

I. of place; through; often so in the Greek poets, once in the N. T. according to L T Tr WH viz. Luke 17:11 διά μέσον Σαμαρείας, for R G διά μέσου Σαμαρείας (but see μέσος, 2).

II. of the Ground or Reason on account of which anything is or is not done; by reason of because of (German aus Grund).

1. of the reason for which a thing is done, or of the efficient reason, when for greater perspicuity it may be rendered by (cf. Kühner, § 434 Anm.);

a. with the accusative of the thing: δἰ ἥν, viz. τήν τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμέραν (properly, by reason of which day, i. e. because it will come (cf. Winer's Grammar, 400 (373))), 2 Peter 3:12; διά τόν λόγον (properly, by reason of the word, i. e. because the word has cleansing power), John 15:3; διά τό θέλημα σου (Vulg. proptar voluntatem tuam, i. e. because thou didst will it), Revelation 4:11; add, Revelation 12:11; Revelation 13:14 (ἀναβιώσκεται διά τήν τοῦ πατρός φύσιν, Plato, symp., p. 203 e.); cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. 3:1.

b. with the accusative of the person, by whose will, agency, favor, fault, anything is or is done: διά τόν πατέρα ... δἰ ἐμέ (properly, because the father lives ... because I live (cf. Winer's Grammar, 399 (373))), John 6:57; διά τόν ὑπταξαντα, by the will of him who subjected it, opposed to οὐχ ἑκοῦσα, Romans 8:20 (cf. Winer's 399 (373) note); μή εἴπῃς ὅτι διά κύριον ἀπέστην, Sir. 15:11; so too in the Greek writings of every age; cf. Krüger, § 68, 23; Grimm on 2 Macc. 6:25. Much more often

2. of the reason or cause on account of which anything is or is done, or ought to be done; on account of, because of;

a. in the phrases διά τοῦτο, for this cause; for this reason; therefore; on this account; since this is so: Matthew 6:25; Matthew 12:27, 31; Matthew 13:13, etc.; Mark 6:14; Mark 11:24; Luke 11:49; Luke 14:20; John 6:65; John 9:23; Acts 2:26; Romans 1:26; Romans 4:16; Romans 5:12; Romans 13:6; Romans 15:9; 1 Corinthians 4:17; 1 Corinthians 11:10, 30; 2 Corinthians 4:1; Ephesians 1:15; Ephesians 5:17; Ephesians 6:13; Colossians 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Thessalonians 3:5, 7; 2 Thessalonians 2:11; 2 Timothy 2:10; Hebrews 1:9; Hebrews 2:1; 1 John 4:5; 3 John 1:10; Revelation 7:15; Revelation 12:12; Revelation 18:8. followed by ὅτι, for this cause ... because, therefore ... because: John 5:16, 18; John 8:47; John 10:17; John 12:18, 39; 1 John 3:1; cf. Tholuck edition 7 on John 10:17 (he questions, at least for John 10:17 and John 12:39, the canon of Meyer (on 12:39), Luthardt (on John 10:17), others, that in this phrase in John the τοῦτο always looks backward) in the opposite order (when the words that precede with ὅτι are to be emphasized): John 15:19. It indicates the end and purpose, being followed either by ἵνα, 2 Corinthians 13:10; 1 Timothy 1:16; Philemon 1:15, (in the opposite order, John 1:31); or by ὅπως, Hebrews 9:15. διά τί (so L Tr WH) and written together διατί (so G T; cf. Winers Grammar, 45; (Lipsius, Gram. Unters., p. 126), why? wherefore? Matthew 9:11, 14; Matthew 13:10; Matthew 17:19; Mark 2:18; Luke 5:30; John 7:45; Acts 5:3; Romans 9:32; 1 Corinthians 6:7; Revelation 17:7. δἰ ἥν αἰτίαν, see αἰτία, 1. τίς αἰτία, δἰ ἥν, Acts 10:21; Acts 23:28; διά ταύτην τήν αἰτίαν, Acts 28:20; διά ταῦτα, Ephesians 5:6, etc.

b. used, with the accusative of any noun, of the mental affection by which one is impelled to some act (English for; cf. Winer's Grammar, 399 (372) διά φθόνον, because prompted by envy, for envy, Matthew 27:18; Mark 15:10; διά τόν φόβον τίνος, John 7:13; John 19:38; John 20:19; Revelation 18:10, 15; διά τήν πολλήν ἀγάπην, Ephesians 2:4. of any other cause on account of which one is said to do or to have done something — as in Matthew 14:3, 9; Matthew 15:3, 6; John 4:39, 41; John 12:11; John 14:11; Acts 28:2; Romans 3:25 (διά τήν πάρεσιν τῶν προγεγονότων ἁμαρτημάτων because of the pretermission etc., i. e. because he had left the sins unpunished); Romans 6:19; Romans 15:15; 2 Corinthians 9:14; Galatians 4:13 (δἰ ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκός, on account of an infirmity of the flesh, i. e. detained among you by sickness; cf. Wieseler (or Lightfoot) at the passage); — or to suffer or have suffered something, Matthew 24:9; Matthew 27:19; Luke 23:19, 25; Acts 21:35; 2 Corinthians 4:11; Colossians 3:6; 1 Peter 3:14; Revelation 1:9; Revelation 6:9; — or to have obtained something, Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 5:14; 1 John 2:12; — or to be or to become something, Romans 8:10 11:28; Ephesians 4:18; Hebrews 5:12 (Winer's Grammar, 399 (373)); Hebrews 7:18. of the impeding cause, where by reason of some person or thing something is said to have been impossible: Matthew 13:58; Matthew 17:20; Mark 2:4; Luke 5:19; Luke 8:19; Acts 21:34; Hebrews 3:19; Hebrews 4:6. διά with the accusative of a person is often equivalent to for the benefit of (English for the sake of): Mark 2:27; John 11:42; John 12:30; 1 Corinthians 11:9; Hebrews 1:14; Hebrews 6:7 διά τούς ἐκλεκτούς, Matthew 24:22; Mark 13:20; 2 Timothy 2:10; διά Χριστόν for Christ's sake, to promote his cause, 1 Corinthians 4:10; δἰ ὑμᾶς, John 12:30; 2 Corinthians 4:15; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Philippians 1:24; 1 Thessalonians 1:5. διά τινα, because of the example set by one: 2 Corinthians 2:10; Romans 2:24; 2 Peter 2:2; διά τόν Χριστόν, for Christ, to become a partner of Christ, Philippians 3:7 (equivalent to ἵνα Χριστόν κερδήσω, Philippians 3:8).

c. διά τό, because that, for that, is placed before the infinitive — either standing alone, as Luke 9:7; Hebrews 7:23; — or having a subject accusative expressed, as Matthew 24:12; Mark 5:4; Luke 2:4; Luke 19:11; Acts 4:2; Acts 12:20; Acts 18:2; Acts 27:4, 9; Acts 28:18; Philippians 1:7; Hebrews 7:24; Hebrews 10:2; James 4:2; — or with its subject accusative evident from the context, as Matthew 13:6; Mark 4:6; Luke 11:8; Luke 18:5; Luke 23:8; Acts 8:11; Acts 18:3.

C. In Composition διά indicates:

1. a passing through space or time, through, (διαβαίνω, διέρχομαι, διϋλίζω, etc.); hence,

2. continuity of time (διαμένω, διατελέω, διατηρέω), and completeness of action (διακαθαρίζω, διαζώννυμι).

3. distribution (διαδίδωμι, διαγγέλλω, διαφημίζω).

4. separation (διαλύω, διαιρέω).

5. rivalry and endeavor (διαπίνω, διακατελέγχομαι; cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 854; (Winer. as below, p. 6)).

6. transition from one state to another (διαλλάσσω, διορθόω). (Cf. Winer, De verb. comp. etc. Part v.; Valckenaer on Herodotus 5, 18; Cattier. Gazophyl. edition Abresch, Cant. 1810, p. 39; A. Rieder, Ueb. d. mit mehr als ein. prap. zusammeng. verba im N. T., p. 17f) No one of the N. T. writers makes more frequent use of verbs compounded with διά than Luke, (see the list in Winer, as above, p. 3 note; on their construction Winers Grammar, § 52, 4, 8).

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(before a vowel δι᾽ , exc. Romans 8:10, 2 Corinthians 5:7, and in pr. names; Tdf., Pr., 94), prep. c. gen., acc, as in cl.;

1. c. gen., through;

(i) of Place, after verbs of motion or action: Matthew 2:12; Matthew 12:43, Mark 2:23, Luke 4:30, John 4:4, 2 Corinthians 11:33, al.; σώζεσθαι (διασ -) δ . πυρός , ὕδατος , 1 Corinthians 3:15, 1 Peter 3:20; βλέπειν δ . ἐσόπτρου , 1 Corinthians 13:12; metaph., of a state or condition: Romans 14:20, 2 Corinthians 2:4; 2 Corinthians 5:7; 2 Corinthians 5:10; δ . γράμμος , ἀκροβυστίας (Lft., Notes, 263, 279), Revelation 2:27; Revelation 4:11; δι᾽ ὑπομονῆς , Romans 8:25.

(ii) Of Time;

(a) during which: Matthew 26:61, Mark 14:58, Luke 5:5; δ . παντὸς τοῦ ζῆν , Hebrews 2:15; δ . παντόν (διαπαντός in Mark 5:5, Luke 24:53), always, continually, Matthew 18:10, Acts 2:25 (LXX) Acts 10:2; Acts 24:16, Romans 11:10 (LXX), 2 Thessalonians 3:16, Hebrews 9:6; Hebrews 13:15;

(b) within which: Acts 1:3; δ . νυκτός , Acts 5:19; Acts 16:9; Acts 17:10; Acts 23:31;

(c) after which (Field, Notes, 20; Abbott, JG, 255 f.): Mark 2:1, Acts 24:17, Galatians 2:1.

(iii) Of the Means or Instrument;

(1) of the efficient cause (regarded also as the instrument): of God, Romans 11:30, 1 Corinthians 1:9, Galatians 4:7, Hebrews 2:10; Hebrews 7:21; of Christ, Romans 1:8; Romans 5:1; Romans 5:17, 1 Corinthians 15:21, 1 Peter 4:11, al.; δ . τ . ὑμῶν δεήσ -εως , Romans 1:12, 2 Corinthians 1:4, Galatians 4:23, al.;

(2) of the agent, instrument or means;

(a) c. gen. pers., Matthew 11:2, Luke 1:70, John 1:17, Acts 1:16, Romans 2:16, 1 Corinthians 1:21, Ephesians 1:5, Hebrews 2:14, Revelation 1:1, al; ὑπὸ τ . κυρίου δ . τ . προφήτου (δ . τ . κυρίου , 1 Thessalonians 4:2 (M, Th., in l); Lft., Rev., 121 f.), Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:15, Romans 1:2; δ . ἐπιστολῆς ὡς δ . ἡμῶν (Field, Notes, 202), 2 Thessalonians 2:2; δ . . (NTD, 22), 1 Peter 5:12;

(b) c. gen. rei (where often the simple dat. is used in cl.; Jannaris, Gr., 375), John 11:4, Acts 5:12; δ . τ . πίστεως , Romans 3:30; δ . λόγου θεοῦ , 1 Peter 1:23; δ . παραβολῆς , Luke 8:4; δουλεύειν δ . τ . ἀγάπης , Galatians 5:13; δ . ἐπαγγελίας , Galatians 3:18.

2. C. acc;

(i) rarely, as c. gen., through (Hom), δ . μέσον Σαμαρίας (ICC, in l; Bl., § 42, 1; Robertson, Gr., 581), Luke 17:11.

(ii) by reason of, because of, for the sake of;

(a) c. acc pers. (M, Pr., 105), Mark 2:27, John 6:57; John 11:42, Romans 8:20;

(b) c. acc rei, δ . φθόνον , Matthew 27:18, Mark 15:10; δ . φόβον , John 7:13; John 20:19; δ . ἀγάπην , Ephesians 2:4; δ . τοῦτο , freq., for this cause, therefore, Matthew 6:25, Mark 6:14, Luke 11:49, John 6:65, al.; id. seq. ὅτι , John 5:16; John 10:17, al.; δ . τί , why, Matthew 9:11; Matthew 9:14, Mark 2:18, John 7:45, al.; δ . τό , c. inf., Mark 5:4, Luke 9:7, James 4:2

3. In composition,

(1) through, as in διαβαίνω ;

(2) of separation, asunder, as in διασπάω ;

(3) of distribution, abroad, as in διαγγέλλω ;

(4) of transition, as διαλλάσσω ;

(5) of "perfective" action (M, Pr., 112 f., 115 f.), as διαφύγω , διακαθαρίζω .

Δία , acc of Ζεύς , q.v.

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Vocabulary of the Greek NT

See Thumb’s account of the MGr γιά (pron. yaδ has fallen out before y, as is normal), Handbook p. 104 f. He shows that the old preposition survives unchanged as far as its use c. acc. is concerned. ";The local meaning of διὰ with gen. has entirely disappeared."; But γιὰ τοῦτο ";therefore,"; γιὰ ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ ";for God’s sake,"; are entirely in the succession of old use. Γιά also = for in other senses which had not emerged in our period—Thumb notes it ";has acquired the function partly of the old dative and partly those of ἐπί, περί, ὑπέρ, ἀντί."; Αὐτὸ εἶναι καλὸ γιὰ σένα, ";that is good for you,"; recalls Philippians 1:24, Hebrews 1:14; and ὅτι γιὰ μένα δὲν ζητῶ, ";what I do not seek for myself,"; has many parallels in NT. The disappearance of διά c. gen. in MGr is not prepared for in the time of the papyri. According to Rossberg’s calculation, out of 714 occurrences of διά in papyri 508 are with genitive, which is a more marked predominance than the NT 382 : 279 (Proleg. p. 105).

Διά c. gen. in the papyri is freely illustrated by Rossberg, p. 37 f. : his citations need not be repeated. Deissmann’s reference in BS, p. 289, brings up the ";Hebraising periphrases"; of which διά takes its share. Wünsch AF 5.24 (iii/A.D. = BS, p. 276) ὁρκίζω σε τὸν φωστῆρα καὶ ἄστρα ἐν οὐρανῷ ποιήσαντα διὰ φωνῆς προστάγ [μ ]ατος, ";by the voice of his command,"; is based on LXX language, and admitted by Deissmann to be a phrase ";which a Greek might feel to be a pleonasm, but which is not altogether un-Greek."; The commonest of these locutions is διὰ χειρός c. gen., with meaning indistinguishable from διά c. gen. alone. This is of course based on בְּיַד, but it is not a literal translation like ἐν χειρί. It is obviously modelled upon the vernacular phrase διὰ χειρός, of money paid ";by hand,"; ";directly,"; ubiquitous in commercial documents : e.g. P Oxy II. 268.7 (A.D. 58) ἀπεσχηκυῖαι [παρὰ τοῦ Ἀντ ]ιφάνους διὰ χειρὸς [ ]ξ οἴκου ὃ καὶ ἐπε [ίσθη ]σαν κεφάλαιον, ";have received from Antiphanes from hand to hand in cash the sum which they severally consented to accept"; (Edd.). Among other stereotyped phrases may be mentioned διὰ παντός, common in papyri as in Bibl. Greek in place of the obsolescent ἀεί : thus P Lond 42.6 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30, Selections p. 9) σοῦ διὰ παντὸς μνείαν ποιούμενοι, BGU IV. 1078.2 (A.D. 39) Σαραπίων Σαραπιάδι τῇ ἀδελφῇ πλεῖστα χαίρειν καὶ διὰ παντὸς ὑγιαίνειν. A rather different temporal use appears in διὰ νυκτός, ";by night"; (Acts 5:19 etc.), as P Ryl II. 138.15 (A.D. 34) κατέλαβα τοῦτον διὰ νυκτὸς ἡλμένον ἐξ ὑπερβατῶν εἰς τὼιὸ τῆς οὐσίας ἐποίκιον Δρομη ̣ως λεγώμενου (i.e. -όμενον), ";I detected him when under cover of night he had sprung into the farmstead"; (Edd.) : it is hard to imagine Fritzsche (see Grimm) arguing that here διὰ νυκτός must mean ";all night long";! Equally unmistakeable is the spell in P Lond 121.407 (iii/A.D.) (= I. p. 97) ἐάν τινι ἐθελήσῃς φανῆναι διὰ νυκτὸς ἐν ὀνείροις. Διὰ βίου however = ";for life,"; as P Lond 1178.50 (A.D. 194) (= III. p. 217) ξυστάρχων διὰ βίου, Preisigke 1269.8 (B.C. 104) ἱερεὺς διὰ βίου, and δι᾽ ἐνιαυτοῦ = ";for a year";—P Strass I. 22.32 (iii/A.D. init.) παρ᾽ ἡμεῖν δ [ὲ ἰ ]δοὺ η ̣̔ [δ ]ι ̣̔ς ̣ ἐνιαυτοῦ νομὴ αὐτάρκης ἐστίν ̣, ";der einjährige Besitz"; (Ed.). For διά as in Mark 2:1, Acts 24:17, cf. OGIS 56.38 (B.C. 239–8) ἐὰν δὲ καὶ συμβαίνηι τὴν ἐπιτολὴν τοῦ ἄστρου μεταβαίνειν εἰς ἑτέραν ἡμέραν διὰ τεσσάρων ἐτῶν, ";after four years"; (see note). Instrumental διά appears in διὰ γένους, as Cagnat IV. 293.46 (Pergamum, c. B.C. 127) τὸν ἀρχιερέα καὶ διὰ γένους ἱερέα τοῦ [Διός ";hereditary priest,"; JHS xxxiv. p. 5 (no. 10.3 of Lycian inscrr.) λαβὼν τὸ χωρίον διὰ γένους. So διὰ προγόνων, Cagnat IV. 293.47 (see above) καὶ δι ]ὰ προγόνων ὑπάρχοντα τῆς πατρίδος εὐεργέ [την. P Ryl II. 135.11 (A.D. 34) ἦραν διὰ ὄνον χόρτου δύσμας τριάκοαν, ";carried off on donkeys thirty bundles of hay"; (Edd.). The common use of Acts 15:27, 2 Corinthians 10:11, may be freely illustrated : thus P Oxy VII. 1066.9 (iii/A.D.) ἔγραψάς μοι διὰ τῆς [ ]πιστολῆς, ";you write to me in the letter"; (Ed.), ib. 1070.15 (iii/A.D.) πολλάκις σοι γράψας διὰ ἐπιστολῶν πολλῶν, P Grenf I. 30.5 (B.C. 103) (= Witkowski.2, p. 107) διὰ γραμμάτων ἐκρίναμεν σημῆναι. It can hardly be said that there is always insistence on mediate authorship when διά has a personal gen. attached. Thus P Grenf II. 41.17 (A.D. 46) (= Chrest. II. p. 197) πάντος (l. -ας) τοὺ (l. τοὺς) δἰ ἐμοῦ οἰκονομηθησομένους χρηματισμούς : the writer is a principal. P Lond 276.7 (A.D. 15) (= II. p. 149) ἵν᾽ [εἰδ ]ὼς κατακλουθησας (l. κατακολουθῇς) τοῖς δι᾽ αὐτοῦ σημαινο [μέν ]οις, P Amh II. 68.6 (late i/A.D.) τὰς δηλουμένας δι᾽ αὐτοῦ (ἀρούρας) ι ̄. But this distinction between διά and ὑπό is normally observed. Thus P Amh II. 111.17 (A.D. 132) καθ᾽ ὁμολογείαν τελιωθῖσαν διὰ τοῦ ἐν κώμῃ Σοκνοπαίου Νήσου γραφείου, ";executed through the record-office of S.N."; (Edd.). BGU I. 136.4 (A.D. 135) Ταποντὼς δι᾽ ἐκδίκου, his counsel. Note δι᾽ ἑαυτοῦ = ipse, as P Oxy II. 273.21 (A.D. 95) ἀπὸ τῆσδε [τῆς ὁμο ]λογίας δι᾽ ἑαυτῆς μετεπιγράφεσθαι, ";to transfer by herself to another"; (Edd.). See other instances in Kuhring p. 39 f., also of other uses c. gen. The elliptical locution διὰ κενῆς, P Hib I. 66.5 (B.C. 228–7) ὥστε σε μὴ διὰ κενῆς εὐχαριαστῆσαι ἡμ [ῖν, ";so that you shall not oblige me to no purpose"; (Edd.), presumably arises from the local meaning of διά.

With acc. διά has a recognized use in petitions where the subtle but important difference from gen. may be overlooked—see Proleg. p. 105. P Magd 16.7 (B.C. 222) ἵνα διὰ σέ, βασιλεῦ, τοῦ δικαίου τύ [χω, ";grâce à toi"; (Ed.), is a good example : διὰ σοῦ would be avoided in addressing a king, and διὰ σέ is more delicate than παρὰ σοῦ. Other instances in Kuhring p. 41, and Rossberg p. 39, whose heading ";quo auctore quid fiat"; is fairly established. The acc. rei sometimes brings the meaning rather near that of διά c. gen. P Fay 119.34 (c. A.D. 100), ἐπὶ κράζει Πᾶσις εἵνα μὴ εἰς ψωμὶν γένηται διὰ τὼ ὕδωρ, ";for Pasis is crying out that we must not allow it [the manure] to be dissolved by the water"; (Edd.), BGU I. 350.4 (ii/A.D.) πεπρακέ [ναι τὸν ὁμολογοῦντα διὰ τήνδε τὴν ] ὁμολογίαν, P Par 17.11 (A.D. 154) πριαμένης διὰ χειρόγραφον (Kuhring p. 41). Late and illiterate documents were only anticipating the general development of Greek syntax. Rossberg p. 39 f. has instances of διά c. acc. classified. With Hebrews 2:10, Revelation 4:11, cf. P Leid Wxiii. 33 (ii/iii A.D.), addressing a deity, σοῦ γαρ φανέντος κ (αὶ) κόσμος ἐγένετο, κ (αὶ) φῶς ἐφάνη · κ (αὶ) διοικονομήθη τὰ πάντα διὰ σέ. P Oxy I. 41.8 (c. A.D. 300), where a crowd acclaims a magistrate, πολλῶν ἀγαθῶν ἀπολαύομεν διὰ σαί, πρύτανι : the date makes it reasonable to compare this directly with διὰ σοῦ in Acts 24:2, rather than putting it into the category described above. For διά in composition it will suffice to refer to Moulton Gr. II. § 116.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
δι δι' δια διά διὰ εν ἰδίᾳ di di' dia diá dià idia idíāi
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