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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Entry for Strong's #4314 - πρός

Word Origin
a strengthened form of (4253)
Parts of Speech
Word Definition [ Thayer | Strong | Mounce ]
Thayer's Definition
  1. to the advantage of
  2. at, near, by
  3. to, towards, with, with regard to
Frequency Lists  [ Book | Word | Parsing ]
Verse Results
KJV (523) NAS (73) HCS (604)
Matthew 43
Mark 65
Luke 159
John 90
Acts 126
Romans 18
1 Corinthians 24
2 Corinthians 34
Galatians 8
Ephesians 12
Philippians 5
Colossians 7
1 Thessalonians 13
2 Thessalonians 5
1 Timothy 5
2 Timothy 5
Titus 5
Philemon 4
Hebrews 20
James 3
1 Peter 3
2 Peter 2
1 John 6
2 John 2
3 John 1
Revelation 9
Matthew 4
Mark 10
Luke 13
John 2
Acts 8
Romans 2
1 Corinthians 2
2 Corinthians 5
Galatians 1
Ephesians 3
Colossians 4
1 Thessalonians 3
2 Thessalonians 1
Philemon 1
Hebrews 4
2 Peter 1
1 John 2
Revelation 2
Matthew 40
Mark 63
Luke 115
John 91
Acts 115
Romans 17
1 Corinthians 24
2 Corinthians 32
Galatians 8
Ephesians 16
Philippians 3
Colossians 6
1 Thessalonians 12
2 Thessalonians 4
1 Timothy 4
2 Timothy 7
Titus 5
Philemon 3
Hebrews 18
James 1
1 Peter 2
2 Peter 2
1 John 4
2 John 3
3 John 1
Revelation 8
PREP 711
PREP 682
PREP 726
PREP 663
V-AAI-1S 1
V-AAI-3S 2
V-FMI-3S 1
V-PAI-3S 1
V-PAS-3S 1
PREP 801

Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

πρός, Prep., expressing direction, on the side of, in the direction of, hence c. gen., dat., and acc., from, at, to: Ep. also προτί and ποτί, in Hom. usually c. acc., more rarely c. dat., and each only once c. gen., Il. 11.831, 22.198: dialectal forms: Dor. ποτί (q. v.) and ποί, but Cret. πορτί Leg.Gort. 5.44, etc., Argive προτ ( ί ) Schwyzer 84.3 (found at Tylisus, V B.C.), restored in Mnemos. 57.208(Argos, vi B.C. ), and in Alcm. 30; Arc., Cypr. πός SIG 306.11 (Tegea, iv B.C. ), Inscr.Cypr. 135.19H., also sts. in Asia Minor in compds., v. ποσάγω, ποσφέρω; Aeol. πρός Sapph. 69 ( προς- ), 109, Alc. 20 (s. v.l.); πρές Jo.Gramm. Comp. 3.10; Pamphylian περτ ( ί ) Schwyzer 686.7, 686a4. (With προτί, πρός cf. Skt. práti 'towards, near to, against, back, etc.', Slav. protiv[ucaron], Lett. pret 'against', Lat. pretium: ποτί (q. v.) and πός are not cogn.) A.

WITH GEN., πρός refers to that from which something comes: I of Place, from, ἵκετο ἠὲ π. ἠοίων ἦ ἑσπερίων ἀνθρώπων Od. 8.29; τὸν π. Σάρδεων ἤλεκτρον S. Ant. 1037 (v.l.).

2. on the side of, towards, νήσοισι πρὸς Ἤλιδος towards Elis, Od. 21.347; π. ἁλός, π. Θύμβρης, Il. 10.428, 430; εἶναι π. θαλάσσης Hdt. 2.154; ἱδρῦσθαι π. τοῦ Ἑλλησπόντου Id. 8.120; ἐστρατοπεδεύοντο π. Ὀλύνθου Th. 1.62, etc.; φυλακαὶ π. Αἰθιόπων, π. Ἀραβίων, π. Διβύης, on the frontier towards the Ethiopians, etc., Hdt. 2.30: freq. with words denoting the points of the compass, δύω θύραι εἰσίν, αἱ μὲν π. βορέαο, αἱ δ' αὖ π. νότου one on the north side, the other on the south side, Od. 13.110; οἰκέουσι π. νότου ἀνέμου Hdt. 3.101; π. ἄρκτου τε καὶ βορέω ἀνέμου κατοικημένοι ib. 102; π. μεσαμβρίης ib. 107; π. τοῦ Τμώλου τετραμμένον τῆς πόλιος (in such phrases the acc. is more common) Id. 1.84; π. Πλαταιῶν Th. 3.21; π. Νεμέας Id. 5.59; ἀπὸ τῆσδε τῆς ὁδοῦ τὸ π. τοῦ λιμένος ἅπαν everything on the harbour- ward side of this road, IG 12.892: combined with π. c. acc., π. ἠῶ τε καὶ τοῦ Τανάϊδος Hdt. 4.122; τὸν μέν π. βορέω ἑστεῶτα, τὸν δὲ π. νότον Id. 2.121, cf. 4.17 .

3. before, in presence of, μάρτυροι ἔστων π. τε θεῶν μακάρων π. τε θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων Il. 1.339; οὐδ' ἐπιορκήσω π. δαίμονος 19.188; ποίτοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος . . ὑπίσχομαι prob. in IG 22.1126.7 (Amphict. Delph., iv B. C. ); ὑποσχομένους πρὸς τοῦ Διός ib.1237.16: hence, in the eyes of, ἄδικον οὐδὲν οὔτε π. θεῶν οὔτε π. ἀνθρώπων Th. 1.71, cf. X. An. 1.6.6, etc.; ὅσιος π. θεῶν Lex ap. And. 1.97; κατειπάτω . . ἁγνῶς π. τοῦ θεοῦ if he wishes to be pure in the sight of the god, SIG 986.9, cf. 17 (Chios, v/iv B. C. ); ὁ γὰρ καιρὸς π. ἀνθρώπων βραχὺ μέτρον ἔχει Pi. P. 4.286 .

4. in supplication or adjuration, before, and so, in the name of, σε . . γουνάζομαι . . π. τ' ἀλόχου καὶ πατρός Od. 11.67; π. θεῶν πατρῴων S. Ant. 839 (lyr.), etc.; ἱκετεύω, ἀντιβολῶ π. παίδων, π. γυναικῶν, etc., D. 28.20, etc.: the verb is freq. omitted with π. θεῶν or τῶν θεῶν, E. Hec. 551, S. OT 1037, Ar. V. 760; π. τοῦ Διός Id. Av. 130: less freq. with other words, π. τῆς ἑστίας E. Fr. 953.39; π. Χαρίτων Luc. Hist.Conscr. 14; μὴ π. γενείου S. El. 1208; μὴ π. ξενίας τᾶς σᾶς Id. OC 515 (lyr.): sts. in questions, π. θεῶν, τίς οὕτως εὐήθης ἐστίν; in heaven's name, D. 1.15; π. τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς . . ; Din. 1.45; ἆρ' οὖν, ὦ π. Διός, . . ; Pl. R. 459a, cf. Ap. 26e: sts. in Trag. with the pron. σε between prep. and case, π. νύν σε πατρὸς π. τε μητρός . . ἱκνοῦμαι S. Ph. 468; μὴ π. σε γονάτων E. Med. 324 .

5. of origin or descent, from, on the side of, γένος ἐξ Ἁλικαρνησσοῦ τὰ π. πατρός by the father's side, Hdt. 7.99; Ἀθηναῖον . . καὶ τὰ π. πατρὸς καὶ τὰ π. μητρός D. 57.17, cf. Isoc. 3.42, SIG 1015.7 (Halic.); πρόγονοι ἢ π. ἀνδρῶν ἢ γυναικῶν in the male or female line, Pl. Tht. 173d; ὁ πατὴρ π. μὲν ἀνδρῶν ἦν τῶν Εὐπατριδῶν Isoc. 16.25; οἱ συγγενεῖς τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ π. ἀνδρῶν καὶ π. γυναικῶν D. 57.23; οἱ π. αἵματος blood-relations, S. Aj. 1305; ἢ φίλων τις ἢ π. αἵματος φύσιν Id. El. 1125 .

II of effects proceeding from what cause soever:

1 from, at the hand of, with Verbs of having, receiving, etc., ὡς ἂν . . τιμὴν καὶ κῦδος ἄρηαι π. πάντων Δαναῶν Il. 16.85, cf. 1.160, etc.; τιμὴν π. Ζηνὸς ἔχοντες Od. 11.302; δίδοι οἱ . . χάριν ποτ' ἀστῶν καὶ ποτὶ ξείνων Pi. O. 7.90; ἄνθεα τιμῆς πρὸς θνητῶν ἀνελέσθαι Emp. 4.7; φυλακῆς π. δήμου κυρῆσαι Hdt. 1.59; τυχεῖν τινος π. θεῶν A. Th. 550, cf. S. Aj. 527; λαχὼν π. δαιμόνων ὄλβον Pi. N. 9.45; κακόν τι π. θεῶν ἢ π. ἀνθρώπων λαβεῖν Hdt. 2.139, etc.; μανθάνειν π. ἀστῶν S. OC 13: with passive Verbs, προτὶ Ἀχιλλῆος δεδιδάχθαι to have been taught by . ., Il. 11.831, cf. S. OT 357; ἄριστα πεποίηται . . πρὸς Τρώων Il. 6.57; αἴσχε' ἀκούω π. Τρώων ib. 525, cf. Heraclit. 79; ταῦτα . . π. τούτου κλύειν S. OT 429; οὐ λέγεται π. οὐδαμῶν Hdt. 1.47; ἀτιμάζεσθαι, τετιμῆσθαι π. τινῶν, ib. 61, 2.75; also λόγου οὐδενὸς γίνεσθαι π. τινῶν Id. 1.120; παθεῖν τι π. τινός at the hand of, ib. 73; π. ἀλλήλοιν θανεῖν E. Ph. 1269, cf. S. OT 1237; π. τῆς τύχης ὄλωλεν ib. 949; τὸ ποιεύμενον π. τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων Hdt. 7.209; αἰτηθέντες π. τινὸς χρήματα Id. 8.111; ἱμέρου βέλει π. σοῦ τέθαλπται A. Pr. 650: with an Adj. or Subst., τιμήεσσα π. πόσιος Od. 18.162; ἐπίφθονος π. τῶν πλεόνων ἀνθρώπων Hdt. 7.139; ἔρημος π. φίλων S. Ant. 919; ἀπαθὴς π. ἀστῶν Pi. P. 4.297; πειθὼ π. τινός S. El. 562; π. Τρώων . . κλέος εἶναι Il. 22.514; ἄρκεσις π. ἀνδρός, δόξα π. ἀνθρώπων, S. OC 73, E. Heracl. 624 (lyr.); ἐλίπετο ἀθάνατον μνήμην π. Ἑλλησποντίων Hdt. 4.144: with an Adv., οἶμαι γὰρ ἂν οὐκ ἀχαρίστως μοι ἔχειν οὔτε π. ὑμῶν οὔτε π. τῆς Ἑλλάδος I shall meet with no ingratitude at your hands, X. An. 2.3.18, cf. Pl. R. 463d .

2. of things, π. τίνος ποτ' αἰτίας [τέθνηκεν ]; from of by what cause? S. OT 1236; π. ἀμπλακημάτων by or by reason of . ., Id. Ant. 51 .

III of dependence or close connexion: hence,

1 dependent on one, under one's protection, π. Διός εἰσι ξεῖνοί τε πτωχοί τε Od. 6.207, 14.57; δικασπόλοι, οἵ τε θέμιστας π. Διὸς εἰρύαται by commission from him, Il. 1.239; π. ἄλλης ἱστὸν ὑφαίνοις at the bidding of another, 6.456 .

2. on one's side, in one's favour, Hdt. 1.75, 124, S. OT 1434, Tr. 479, etc.; π. τῶν ἐχόντων . . τὸν νόμον τίθης E. Alc. 57 . of that which is derivable from: hence, agreeable to, becoming, like, τὰ τοιαῦτα ἔργα οὐ π. τοῦ ἅπαντος ἀνδρὸς νενόμικα γίνεσθαι, ἀλλὰπ. ψυχῆς τε ἀγαθῆς καὶ ῥώμης ἀνδρηΐης Hdt. 7.153, cf. 5.12; ἦ κάρτα π. γυναικὸς αἴρεσθαι κέαρ 'tis very like a woman, A. Ag. 592, cf. 1636; οὐ π. ἰατροῦ σοφοῦ θρηνεῖν ἐπῳδάς S. Aj. 581, cf. Ar. V. 369, E. Hel. 950, etc.; π. σοῦ ἐστι Id. HF 585, etc.; οὐκ ἦν π. τοῦ Κύρου τρόπου X. An. 1.2.11, etc.: of qualities, etc., π. δυσσεβείας A. Ch. 704; π. δίκης οὐδὲν τρέμων agreeably to justice, S. OT 1014, cf. El. 1211; οὐ π. τῆς ὑμετέρας δόξης Th. 3.59; ἐάν τι ἡμῖν π. λόγου ᾖ if it be at all to our purpose, Pl. Grg. 459c; εἰ τόδε π. τρόπου λέγω correctly, Id. R. 470c; but π. τρόπου τι ὠνεῖσθαι buy at a reasonable price, Thphr. Char. 30.12; τὰ γενήματα π. ἐλάσσονος τιμᾶς πωλῶν IG 5(2).515.14 ( Lycosura ); π. ἀγαθοῦ, π. κακοῦ τινί ἐστι or γίγνεται, it is to one's advantage or otherwise, Arist. Mu. 397a30, Arr. An. 7.16.5, Hld. 7.12; π. ἀτιμίας λαβεῖν τι to take a thing as an insult, regard it so, Plu. Cic. 13; π. δέους λαβεῖν τι Id. Flam. 7; λαβεῖν τι π. ὀργῆς (v.l. ὀργήν ) J. AJ 8.1.3; μοι π. εὐκλείας γένοιτο ib. 18.7.7; τῷ δήμῳ π. αἰσχύνης ἂν ἦν, π. ὀνείδους ἂν ἦν τῇ πόλει, Lib. Decl. 43.27, 28 .

WITH DAT., it expresses proximity, hard by, near, at, ποτὶ γαίῃ Od. 8.190, 11.423; ποτὶ γούνασι Il. 5.408; ποτὶ δρυσίν among the oaks, 14.398 (nisi leg. περί ) ; πρὸς ἄκμονι χαλκεύειν Pi. P. 1.86; ποτὶ γραμμᾷ στᾶσαί τινα ib. 9.118; ἄγκυραν ποτὶ ναΐ κρημνάντων ib. 4.24; δῆσαί τινα πρὸς φάραγγι A. Proverbs 15:1-33; νεὼς καμούσης ποντίῳ π. κύματι Id. Th. 210; π. μέσῃ ἀγορᾷ S. Tr. 371; π. Ἀργείων στρατῷ Id. Aj. 95; π. πέδῳ κεῖται Id. OT 180 (lyr.); θακεῖν π. ναοῖς ib. 20, cf. A. Eu. 855; π. ἡλίου ναίουσι πηγαῖς Id. Pr. 808; π. τῇ γῇ ναυμαχεῖν Th. 7.34; ἐς μάχην καθίστασθαι π. (v.l. ὑπ' ) αὐτῇ τῇ πόλει Id. 2.79; τεῖχος π. τῇ θαλάσσῃ Id. 3.105; αἱ π. θαλάττῃ πόλεις X. HG 4.8.1; τὸ π. Αἰγίνῃ στράτευμα off Aegina, Th. 1.105; Αίβυες οἱ π. Αἰγύπτῳ bordering on . ., ib. 104; τὸ π. ποσί that which is close to the feet, before one, S. OT 130, etc.; θρηνεῖν ἐπῳδὰς π . . . πήματι over it, Id. Aj. 582; αἱ π. τῇ βάσει γωνίαι the angles at the base, Euc. 1.5,al.; τὴν π. τῷ . . ιερῷ κρήνην IG 22.338.13, cf. SIG 1040.15 (Piraeus, iv B. C. ), al.

2. before, in the presence of, π. τοῖς θεσμοθέταις, π. τῷ διαιτητῇ λέγειν, D. 20.98, 39.22; ὅσα π. τοῖς κριταῖς γέγονεν Id. 21.18; π. διαιτητῇ φεύγειν Id. 22.28 .

3. with Verbs denoting motion towards a place, upon, against, ποτὶ δὲ σκῆπτρον βάλε γαίῃ Il. 1.245, Od. 2.80; με βάλῃ . . ποτὶ πέτρῃ 5.415, cf. 7.279, 9.284; νῆας ποτὶ σπιλάδεσσιν ἔαξαν 3.298, cf. 5.401; λιαζόμενον ποτὶ γαίῃ sinking on the ground, Il. 20.420; ἴσχοντες πρὸς ταῖς πόλεσι Th. 7.35 .

4. sts. with a notion of clinging closely, προτὶ οἷ λάβε clasped to him, Il. 20.418; προτὶ οἷ εἷλε 21.507; πρὸς ἀλλήλῃσιν ἔχονται Od. 5.329; προσπεπλασμένας . . π. ὄρεσι Hdt. 3.111; π. δμῳαῖσι κλίνομαι fall into the arms of . ., S. Ant. 1189; π. τινί close to, Men. Epit. 204 .

II to express close engagement, at the point of, π. αὐτῷ γ' εἰμὶ τῷ δεινῷ λέγειν S. OT 1169; engaged in or about, π. τῷ εἰρημένῳ λόγῳ ἦν Pl. Phd. 84c, cf. Phdr. 249c, 249d; ἂν π. τῷ σκοπεῖν . . γένησθε D. 18.176; ἀεὶ π. ᾧ εἴη ἔργῳ, τοῦτο ἔπραττεν X. HG 4.8.22; διατρίβειν or σχολάζειν π. τινί, Epicr. 11.3 (anap.), Arist. Pol. 1308b36 (but π. ταῦτα ἐσχόλασα X. Mem. 3.6.6 ); ὅλος εἶναι π. τῷ λήμματι D. 19.127; π. τῇ ἀνάγκῃ ταύτῃ γίγνεσθαι Aeschin. 1.74; τὴν διάνοιαν, τὴν γνώμην ἔχειν π. τινί, Pl. R. 500b, Aeschin. 3.192; κατατάξαι αὐτὸν π. γράμμασιν, i.e. give him a post as clerk, PCair.Zen. 342.3 (iii B. C.); ὁ π. τοῖς γράμμασι τεταγμένος Plb. 15.27.7, cf. 5.54.7, D.S. 2.29, 3.22; ἐπιμελητὴς π. τῇ εἰκασίᾳ τοῦ σησάμου PTeb. 713.2, cf. 709.1 (ii B. C.) .

III to express union or addition, once in Hom., ἄασάν μ' ἕταροί τε κακοὶ π. τοῖσί τε ὕπνος and besides them sleep, Od. 10.68; π. τοῖς παροῦσιν ἄλλα in addition to, A. Pr. 323, cf. Pers. 531, Xenoph. 8.3 . Emp. 59.3; ἄλλους π. ἑαυτῷ Th. 1.90; π. ταῖς ἡμετέραις [τριήρεσι ] Id. 6.90; δέκα μῆνας π. ἄλλοις πέντε S. Tr. 45; τρίτος . . π. δέκ' ἄλλαισιν γοναῖς A. Pr. 774; κυβερνήτης π. τῇ σκυτοτομίᾳ in addition to his trade of leather-cutter, Pl. R. 397e: freq. with neut. Adjs., π. τῷ νέῳ ἁπαλός besides his youth, Id. Smp. 195c, cf. Tht. 185e; π. τῷ βλαβερῷ καὶ ἀηδέστατον Id. Phdr. 240b; π. τούτοισι besides this, Hdt. 2.51, cf. A. Pers. 237 (troch.), etc.; rarely in sg., π. τούτῳ Hdt. 1.31, 41; π. τοῖς ἄλλοις besides all the rest, Th. 2.61, etc.: cf. the Advb. usage, infr. D.

WITH ACCU S., it expresses motion or direction towards an object: I of Place, towards, to, with Verbs of Motion, ἰέναι π. Ὄλυμπον Il. 1.420; ἰέναι π. δώματα, etc., Od. 2.288, etc.; ἰέναι π. ἠῶ τ' ἠέλιόν τε Il. 12.239; φέρειν προτὶ ἄστυ, ἄγειν προτὶ Ἴλιον, etc., 13.538, 657, etc.; ἄγεσθαιπρὸς οἶκον, ἐρύεσθαι ποτὶ Ἴλιον, 9.147, 18.174; ὠθεῖν, δίεσθαι προτὶ ἄστυ, 16.45, 15.681, etc.; ῥίπτασκε ποτὶ νέφεα Od. 8.374; βαλεῖν ποτὶ πέτρας 12.71; κυλινδόμενα προτὶ χέρσον 9.147; ἀπῆλθε πρὸς ἑαυτόν returned to his home, LXX Numbers 24:25; κληθῆναι π. τὸ δεῖπνον (rarer than ἐπὶ δεῖπνον ) Plu. Cat.Ma. 3 .

2. with Verbs implying previous motion, upon, against, π. τεῖχος, π. κίονα ἐρείσας, Il. 22.112, Od. 8.66; ἅρματα . . ἔκλιναν π. ἐνώπια Il. 8.435; ἔγχος ἔστησε π. κίονα Od. 1.127; ποτὶ τοῖχον ἀρηρότες 2.342; ποτὶ βωμὸν ἵζεσθαι 22.334; πρὸς γοῦνα καθέζετό τινος 18.395; π. ἄλλοτ' ἄλλον πημονὴ προσιζάνει A. Pr. 278; τὰ πολλὰ πατρὸς π. τάφον κτερίσματα S. El. 931; χῶρον π. αὐτὸν τόνδ' dub. in Id. Ph. 23; later, ἔστη π. τὸν στῦλον LXX 4 Ki. 23.3; ὁ ὄχλος π. τὴν θάλασσαν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἦσαν Mark 4:1; π. ὑμᾶς παραμενῶ with you, 1 Corinthians 16:6

Thayer's Expanded Definition

πρός, a preposition, equivalent to the epic προτί, from πρό and the adverbial suffix τί (cf. the German vor ... bin (Curtius, § 381)); it is joined

I. with the accusative, to, toward, Latinad, denoting direction toward a thing, or position and state looking toward a thing (Winer's Grammar, § 49 h., p. 404 (378)); it is used

1. of the goal or limit toward which a movement is directed: πρός τινα or τί, a. properly, after verbs of going, departing, running, coming, etc.: ἄγω, John 11:15; ἀναβαίνω, Mark 6:51; John 20:17; Acts 15:2; ἀνακάμπτω, Matthew 2:12; Acts 18:21; ἀνέρχομαι, Galatians 1:17 (L Tr marginal reading ἀπῆλθον); ἀπέρχομαι, Matthew 14:25 (Rec.); Mark 3:13, etc.; πρός ἑαυτόν, to his house, Luke 24:12 (T omits; L Tr brackets; WH reject the verse; Tr reads πρός αὐτοῦ; some connect the phrase with θαυμάζων (see 2 b. below)); John 20:10 (T Tr αὐτούς, WH αὑτούς (cf. under the word αὑτοῦ, at the end)); γίνεσθαι πρός τινα, to come to one, 1 Corinthians 2:3; 1 Corinthians 16:10; διαπεράω, Luke 16:26; ἐγγίζω, Mark 11:1; Luke 19:29; εἰσέρχομαι, Mark 6:25; Luke 1:28; Acts 10:3; (πρός τήν Λυδίαν, into the house of Lydia, Acts 16:40 (Rec. εἰς)); etc.; Revelation 3:20; εἰσπορεύομαι, Acts 28:30; ἐκπορεύομαι, Matthew 3:5; Mark 1:5; ἐξέρχομαι, John 18:29, 38; 2 Corinthians 8:17; Hebrews 13:13; ἐπιστρέφω, to turn (oneself), Acts 9:40; 2 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; ἐπισυνάγεσθαι, Mark 1:33; ἔρχομαι, Matthew 3:14; Matthew 7:15, and often; ἥκω, John 6:37; Acts 28:23 (Rec.); καταβαίνω, Acts 10:21; Acts 14:11; Revelation 12:12; μεταβαίνω, John 13:1; ὀρθρίζω, Luke 21:38; παραγίνομαι, Matthew 3:13; Luke 7:4, 20; Luke 8:19; Luke 11:6; ( Tdf.); πορεύομαι, Matthew 10:6; Luke 11:5; John 14:12, etc.; συνάγεσθαι, Matthew 13:2; Matthew 27:62; Mark 4:1; Mark 6:30; Mark 7:1; συντρέχειν, Acts 3:11; ὑπάγω, Matthew 26:18; Mark 5:19; John 7:33; John 13:3; John 16:5, 10, 16 (T Tr WH omit; L brackets the clause), ; κατευθύνειν τήν ὁδόν,1 Thessalonians 3:11; also after (kindred) nouns: εἴσοδος, 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 2:1; προσαγωγή, Ephesians 2:18. after verbs of moving, leading, sending, drawing, bringing, directing: ἄγω, Mark 11:7 (R L); Luke 18:40; John 1:42 (43); (John 18:13 L T Tr WH); Acts 9:27, etc.; ἀπάγω, Matthew 26:57 (R. V. to the house of C. (cf. Acts 16:40 above)); Mark 14:53; John 18:13 (R G); Acts 23:17; 1 Corinthians 12:2; (ἐξάγω ἕως πρός (see ἕως, II. 2 c.), Luke 24:50 L text T Tr WH); κατασύρω, Luke 12:58; ἁρπάζω, Revelation 12:5; ἑλκύω, John 12:32; παραλαμβάνω, John 14:3; φέρω, Mark 1:32; Mark 9:17, 19, 20; (Mark 11:7 T Tr WH); πέμπω, Luke 7:(not T WH),19; Acts 25:21 (L T Tr WH ἀναπέμψω), etc. (see πέμπω); ἀναπέμπω, Luke 23:7, 15; ἀποστέλλω, Matthew 23:34, etc. (see ἀποστέλλω, 1b. and d.); στρέφομαι, Luke 7:44; Luke 23:28. after verbs of falling: πίπτειν πρός τούς πόδας τίνος, Mark 5:22; Mark 7:25; (Acts 5:10 L T Tr WH); Revelation 1:17. after other verbs and substantives with which the idea of direction is connected: as ἐπιστολή πρός τινα, Acts 9:2; Acts 22:5; 2 Corinthians 3:1; ἐντολή, Acts 17:15; ἀνάδειξις, Luke 1:80; κάμπτω τά γόνατα, Ephesians 3:14; ἐκπετάννυμι τάς χεῖρας, Romans 10:21 (from Isaiah 65:2); πρόσωπον πρός πρόσωπον, face (turned) to face, i. e. in immediate presence, 1 Corinthians 13:12 (after the Hebrew, Genesis 32:30; Judges 6:22); στόμα πρός στόμα, mouth (turned) to mouth, i. e. in each other's presence, 2 John 1:12; 3 John 1:14 (see στόμα, 1); λαλεῖν πρός τό οὖς, the mouth being put to the ear, Luke 12:3. after verbs of adding, joining to: προστιθεναι τινα πρός τούς πατέρας, to lay one unto, i. e. bury him by the side of, his fathers, Acts 13:36 (after the Hebrew, 2 Kings 22:20; Judges 2:10); θάπτειν τινα πρός τινα, Acts 5:10. after verbs of saying (because speech is directed toward someone), invoking, swearing, testifying, making known: with an accusative of the person, ἀνοίγω τό στόμα, 2 Corinthians 6:11; Luke 1:13, and very often by Luke; John 4:48; John 7:3, etc.; Hebrews 1:13; λαλέω, Luke 1:19, 55; Luke 2:18, etc.; 1 Thessalonians 2:2; Hebrews 5:5; Hebrews 11:18; λέγω, Luke 5:36, etc.; John 2:3; John 4:15, etc.; Hebrews 7:21; φημί, Luke 22:70; Acts 2:38 (R G); , etc.; διαλέγομαι, Acts 24:12; ἀποκρίνομαι, Luke 4:4; Acts 3:12; δέομαι, Acts 8:24; βοάω, Luke 18:7 (R G L); αἴρειν φωνήν, Acts 4:24; εὔχομαι, 2 Corinthians 13:7; ὄμνυμι, Luke 1:73; μάρτυς εἰμί, Acts 13:31; Acts 22:15; δημηγορέω, Acts 12:21; κατηγορέω, to accuse to, bring, as it were, to the judge by accusation, John 5:45; ἐμφανίζω, Acts 23:22; γνωρίζεται, be made known unto, Philippians 4:6. also after (kindred) substantives (and phrases): ἀπολογία, addressed unto one, Acts 22:1; λόγος, 2 Corinthians 1:18; λόγος παρακλήσεως, Acts 13:15; λόγος γίνεται πρός τινα, John 10:35 (Genesis 15:1, 4; Jeremiah 1:2, 11; Jeremiah 13:8; Ezekiel 6:1; Hosea 1:1); γίνεται φωνή, Acts 7:31 Rec.; ; γίνεται ἐπαγγελία, Acts 13:32 and Rec. in (where L T Tr WH εἰς); προσευχή, Romans 15:30; δέησις, Romans 10:1; προσφέρειν δεήσεις, Hebrews 5:7. πρός ἀλλήλους after ἀντιβάλλειν λόγους, Luke 24:17; Luke 8taXaXe(p, Luke 6:11; διαλέγεσθαι, Mark 9:34; διαλογίζεσθαι, Mark 8:16; εἰπεῖν, Luke 2:15 ((L marginal reading T WH λαλεῖν)); ; John 16:17; John 19:24; λέγειν, Mark 4:41; Luke 8:25; John 4:33; Acts 28:4; ὁμιλεῖν, Luke 24:14; συλλαλεῖν, Luke 4:36. πρός ἑαυτούς equivalent to πρός ἀλλήλους: after συζητεῖν, Mark 1:27 (T WH text read simply αὐτούς (as subjunctive)); ; Luke 22:23; εἰπεῖν, Mark 12:7; John 12:19; λέγειν, Mark 16:3; ἀγανακτεῖν (R. V. had indignation among themselves. saying), Mark 14:4 T WH (cf. Tr); see 2 b. below.

b. of a time drawing toward a given time (cf.

f. below): πρός ἑσπέραν ἐστιν, toward evening, Luke 24:29 (Genesis 8:11; Zechariah 14:7; Plato, de rep. 1, p. 328a.; Josephus, Antiquities 5, 4, 3; πρός ἡμέραν, Xenophon, ahab. 4, 5, 21; Plato, conviv., p. 223 c.); (πρός σάββατον, Mark 15:42 LTr text).

c. metaphorically, of mental direction, with words denoting desires and emotions of the mind, to, toward: ἐνδεικνύειν πραΰτητα, Titus 3:2; μακροθύμειν, 1 Thessalonians 5:14; ἤπιος, 2 Timothy 2:24; ἔχθρα, Luke 23:12; πεποίθησιν ἔχειν, 2 Corinthians 3:4; (ἐλπίδα ἔχων, Acts 24:15 Tdf.); πίστις, 1 Thessalonians 1:8; παρρησία, 2 Corinthians 7:4; 1 John 3:21; 1 John 5:14; with verbs signifying the mode of bearing oneself toward a person, ἐργάζεσθαι τό ἀγαθόν, Galatians 6:10; τά αὐτά, Ephesians 6:9 (Xenophon, mem. 1, 1, 6). of a hostile direction, agdainst; so after ἀνταγωνιζεσθα, Hebrews 12:4; στῆναι, Ephesians 6:11; λακτίζειν, Acts 9:5 Rec.; (see κέντρον, 2); πάλη, Ephesians 6:12; μάχεσθαι, John 6:52; διακρίνομαι, Acts 11:2; γογγυσμός, Acts 6:1; βλασφημία, Revelation 13:6; πικραίνεσθαι, Colossians 3:19; (ἔχειν τί, Acts 24:19; ἔχειν ζήτημα, ; μομφήν, Colossians 3:13; πρᾶγμα, 1 Corinthians 6:1; λόγον (see λόγος, I. 6), Acts 19:38; πρός τινα, to have something to bring against one (R. V. wherewith to answer), 2 Corinthians 5:12; τά (which Tr text WH omit) πρός τινα, the things to be said against one, Acts 23:30 (R G Tr WH; here may be added πρός πλησμονήν σαρκός, against (i. e. to check) the indulgence of the flesh, Colossians 2:23 (see πλησμονή)).

d. of the issue or end to which anything tends or leads: ἀσθένεια οὐκ ἐστι πρός θάνατον, John 11:4; ἁμαρτάνειν, ἁμαρτία πρός θάνατον, 1 John 5:16f; στρεβλουσι πρός τήν ἰδίαν αὐτῶν ἀπώλειαν, 2 Peter 3:16; τά πρός τήν εἰρήνην namely, ὄντα — now, the things which tend to the restoration of peace (A. V. conditions of peace), Luke 14:32; now, which tend to the attainment of safety (A. V. which belong unto peace), Luke 19:42; τά πρός ζωήν, καί εὐσέβειαν (A. V. that pertain unto), 2 Peter 1:3; πρός δόξαν τῷ Θεῷ, 2 Corinthians 1:20; τοῦ κυρίου, 2 Corinthians 8:19.

e. of an intended end or purpose: πρός νουθεσίαν τίνος, 1 Corinthians 10:11; as other examples add, Matthew 26:12; Romans 3:26; Romans 15:2; 1 Corinthians 6:5; 1 Corinthians 7:35; 1 Corinthians 12:7; 1 Corinthians 14:12, 26; 1 Corinthians 15:34; 2 Corinthians 4:6; 2 Corinthians 7:3; 2 Corinthians 11:8; Ephesians 4:12; 1 Timothy 1:16; Hebrews 6:11; Hebrews 9:13; πρός τί, to what end, for what intent, John 13:28; πρός τήν ἐλεημοσύνην, for the purpose of asking alms, Acts 3:10; πρός τό with an infinitive in order to, etc.: Matthew 5:28; Matthew 6:1; Matthew 13:30; Matthew 23:5; Matthew 26:12; Mark 13:22; 2 Corinthians 3:13; Ephesians 6:11; 1 Thessalonians 2:9; 2 Thessalonians 3:8, also R G in James 3:3.

f. of the time for which a thing has been, as it were, appointed, i. e. during which it will last; where we use our for (German für orauf) (cf.

b. above): πρός καιρόν (Latinad tempus, Cicero, de off. 1, 8, 27; de amicitia 15, 53; Livy 21, 25, 14), i. e. for a season, for a while, Luke 8:13; 1 Corinthians 7:5; πρός καιρόν ὥρας (R. V. for a short season), 1 Thessalonians 2:17; πρός ὥραν, for a short time, for an hour, John 5:35; 2 Corinthians 7:8; Galatians 2:5; Philemon 1:15; πρός ὀλίγας ἡμέρας, Hebrews 12:10 πρός τό παρόν, for the present, ibid. 11 (Thucydides 2, 22; Plato, legg. 5, p. 736 a.; Josephus, Antiquities 6, 5, 1; Herodian, 1, 3, 13 (5 edition, Bekker); Dio Cassius, 41, 15); πρός ὀλίγον, for a little time, James 4:4 (Lucian, dial. deor. 18, 1; Aelian v. h. 12, 63).

2. it is used of close proximity — the idea of direction, though not entirely lost, being more or less weakened;

a. answering to our at or by (German an); after verbs of fastening, adhering, moving (to): δεδέσθαι πρός τήν θύραν, Mark 11:4; προσκολλᾶσθαι, Mark 10:7 R G Tr (in marginal reading brackets); Ephesians 5:31 R G WH text; προσκόπτειν, Matthew 4:6; Luke 4:11; κεῖσθαι, equivalent to to be brought near to, Matthew 3:10; Luke 3:9 ((cf. 2 Macc. 4:33)); τιθέναι, Acts 3:2; (Acts 4:37 Tdf. (others παρά)); add, βεβλησθαι, Luke 16:20; τά πρός τήν θύραν, the forecourt (see θύρα, a.), Mark 2:2; εἶναι πρός τήν θάλασσαν (properly, toward the sea (A. V. by the sea)), Mark 4:1; θερμαίνεσθαι πρός τό φῶς, turned to the light (R. V. in the light), Mark 14:54; καθῆσθαι πρός τό φῶς, Luke 22:56; πρός τό μνημεῖον, John 20:11 Rec.; cf. Fritzsche on Mark, p. 201f b. equivalent to (Latinapud) with, with the accusative of a person, after verbs of remaining, dwelling, tarrying, etc. (which require one to be conceived of as always turned toward one), cf. Fritzsche as above: after εἶναι, Matthew 13:56; Mark 6:3; Mark 9:19; Mark 14:49; Luke 9:41; John 1:1; 1 John 1:2; 1 Thessalonians 3:4; 2 Thessalonians 2:5; 2 Thessalonians 3:10; παρεῖναι, Acts 12:20; 2 Corinthians 11:9 (8); Galatians 4:18, 20; παρουσία, Philippians 1:26; διαμενεῖν, Galatians 2:5; παραμένειν, 1 Corinthians 16:6; ἐπιμένειν, 1 Corinthians 16:7; Galatians 1:18; καθέζεσθαι, Matthew 26:55 (R G L Tr brackets); ἐνδήμειν, 2 Corinthians 5:8; κατέχειν τινα πρός ἑαυτόν, Philemon 1:13. πρός ἐμαυτόν, etc. (apud animum meum), with myself, etc. (2 Macc. 11:13; examples from Greek writings are given in Passow, under the word, I. 2, p. 1157a; (Liddell and Scott, under the word C. I. 5)), συλλογίζομαι, Luke 20:5; προσεύχομαι, Luke 18:11 (Tdf. omits πρός ἑαυτόν, Griesbach connects it with σταθείς); ἀγανακτεῖν, Mark 14:4 ((cf. 1 a. at the end); θαυμάζειν, Luke 24:12 (according to some; see above, 1 a. at the beginning)). Further, ποιεῖν τί πρός τινα, Matthew 26:18; ἔχω χάριν πρός τινα, Acts 2:47; ἔχει καύχημα ... πρός Θεόν to have whereof to glory with one (properly, turned 'toward' one), Romans 4:2; παράκλητον πρός τινα, 1 John 2:1.

3. of relation or reference to any person or thing; thus a. of fitness: joined to adjectives, ἀγαθός, Ephesians 4:29; ἕτοιμος, Titus 3:1; 1 Peter 3:15; ἱκανός, 2 Corinthians 2:16; δυνατός, 2 Corinthians 10:4; ἐξηρτισμένος, 2 Timothy 3:17; ὠφέλιμος, 1 Timothy 4:8; 2 Timothy 3:16; ἀδόκιμος, Titus 1:16; ἀνεύθετος, Acts 27:12; λευκός, white and so ready for, John 4:35; τά πρός τήν χρείαν namely, ἀναγκαῖά (R. V. such things as we needed,), Acts 28:10.

b. of the relation or close connection entered (or to be entered) into by one person with another: περιπατεῖν πρός (German im Verkehr mit (in contact with (A. V. toward)); cf. Bernhardy (1829), p. 265; Passow, under the word, I. 2, p. 1157a; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, C. I. 5)) τινα, Colossians 4:5; 1 Thessalonians 4:12; ἀναστρέφεσθαι, 2 Corinthians 1:12; of ethical relationship (where we use with), ἀσύμφωνος πρός ἀλλήλους, Acts 28:25; κονωνια, συμφώνησις πρός τινα or τί, 2 Corinthians 6:15f; εἰρήνην ἔχειν (see εἰρήνη, 5), Romans 5:1; συνείδησιν ἔχειν πρός τόν Θεόν, Acts 24:16; διαθήκην ἐντέλλομαι πρός τινα, Hebrews 9:20 (see ἐντέλλω, at the end); διαθήκην διατίθημι, Acts 2:25 (in Greek writings συνθήκας, σπονδάς, συμμαχίαν ποιεῖσθαι πρός τινα, and similar expressions; cf. Passow (or Liddell and Scott) as above); μή ταπεινώσῃ ... πρός ὑμᾶς, in my relation to you (R. V. before), 2 Corinthians 12:21; πρός ὅν ἡμῖν λόγος (see λόγος, II. 5), Hebrews 4:13. Here belongs also 2 Corinthians 4:2 (A. V. to every man's conscience).

c. with regard to (any person or thing), with respect to, as to; after verbs of saying: πρός τινα, Mark 12:12; Luke 12:41; Luke 18:9; Luke 19:9; Luke 20:19; Romans 10:21; Hebrews 1:7f; πρός τό δεῖν προσεύχεσθαι, Luke 18:1; ἐπιτρέπειν, γράφειν τί πρός τί, Matthew 19:8; Mark 10:5; ἀποκριθῆναι τί πρός τί, Matthew 27:14; ἀνταποκριθῆναι, Luke 14:6' τί ἐροῦμεν πρός ταῦτα, Romans 8:31 (Xenophon, mem. 3, 9, 12; anab. 2, 1, 20).

d. pertaining to: τά πρός τόν Θεόν (see Θεός, 3 γ.), Romans 15:17; Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 5:1; τί πρός ἡμᾶς; namely, ἐστιν, what is that to us? i. e. it is none of our business to care for that, Matthew 27:4; also τί πρός σε; John 21:22, 23 (here Tdf. omits).

e. in comparison (like Latinad) equivalent to in comparison with: so after ἄξιος (which see in a.), Romans 8:18 (οὐ λογισθήσεται ἕτερος πρός αὐτόν, Baruch 3:36 (35); cf. Viger. edition, Herm., p. 666; (Buttmann, § 147, 28)).

f. agreeably to, according to: πρός (i. e. πρός ταῦτα ) ἔπραξε, 2 Corinthians 5:10; ποιεῖν πρός τό θέλημα τίνος, Luke 12:47; ὀρθοπόδειν πρός τήν ἀλήθειαν, Galatians 2:14. Here belong Ephesians 3:4; Ephesians 4:14.

g. akin to this is the use of πρός joined to nouns denoting desires, emotions, virtues, etc., to form a periphrasis of the adverbs (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 51, 2 h.): πρός φθόνον, enviously, James 4:5 ((on this passage see φθόνος); πρός ὀργήν equivalent to ὀργίλως, Sophocles El. 369; πρός βίαν equivalent to βιαίως, Aeschylus (Prom. 208, 353, etc.) Eum. 5; others; πρός ἡδονήν καί πρός χάριν, pleasantly and graciously, Josephus, Antiquities 12, 10, 3; (other examples in Liddell and Scott, under C. III. 7)).

II. with the dative, at, near, hard by, denoting close local proximity (Winers Grammar, 395 (369f)); so six times in the N. T. (much more frequent in the Sept. and in the O. T. Apocrypha): Mark 5:11 G L T Tr WH (R. V. on the mountain side); Luke 19:37; John 18:16; John 20:11 (where Rec. has πρός τό μν,.); John 20:12; Revelation 1:13.

III. with the genitive,

a. properly, used of that from which something proceeds;

b. (Latina parte i. e.) on the side of; hence, tropically πρός τίνος εἶναι or ὑπάρχειν, to pertain to one, lie in one's interests, be to one's advantage: so once in the N. T. τοῦτο πρός τῆς ὑμετέρας σωτηρίας ὑπάρχει, conduces to (A. V. is for) your safety, Acts 27:34. (Κροισος ἐλπισας πρός ἑωυτοῦ τόν χρησμον εἶναι, Herodotus 1, 75; οὐ πρός τῆς ὑμετέρας δόξης, it will not redound to your credit, Thucydides 3, 59; add, Plato, Gorgias, p. 459 c.; Lucian, dial. deor. 20, 3; Dionysius Halicarnassus, Antiquities 10, 30; Arrian exp. Alex. 1, 19, 6; cf. Viger. edition, Herm., p. 659f; Matthiae, p. 1385f; (Liddell and Scott, under the word A. IV.); Winer's Grammar, 374 (350).)

IV. in Composition πρός signifies

1. direction or motion to a goal: προσάγω, προσεγγίζω, προσέρχομαι, προστρέχω.

2. addition, accession, besides: προσανατίθημι, προσαπειλέω, προσοφείλω.

3. vicinity: προσεδρεύω, προσμένω.

4. our on, at, as in προσκόπτω; and then of things which adhere to or are fastened to others, as προσηλόω, προσπήγνυμι.

5. to or for, of a thing adjusted to some standard: πρόσκαιρος. Cf. Zeune ad Viger. edition, Herm., p. 666.

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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

πρός ,

prep. c. gen., dat., acc

I. C. gen., of motion from a place, from the side of, hence metaph., in the interests of, Acts 27:34 (ef. Page, in l).

II. C. dat., of local proximity, hard by, near, at: Mark 5:11, Luke 19:37, John 18:16; John 20:11-12, Revelation 1:13.

III. C. acc, of motion or direction towards a place or object, to, towards.

1. Of place,

(a) after verbs of motion or of speaking and other words with the idea of direction: ἔρχομαι , ἀναβαίνω , πορεύομαι , λέγω , ἐπιστολή , etc., Matthew 3:14, Mark 6:51, Luke 11:5, John 2:3, Acts 9:2, al. mult.; metaph., of mental direction, hostile or otherwise, Luke 23:12, John 6:52, 2 Corinthians 7:4, Ephesians 6:12, Colossians 3:13, al.; of the issue or end, Luke 14:32, John 11:4, al.; of purpose, Matthew 26:12, Romans 3:26, 1 Corinthians 6:5, al.; πρὸς τό , c. inf., denoting purpose (cf. M, Pr., 218, 220; Lft., Notes, 131), Matthew 5:28, Mark 13:22, Ephesians 6:11, 1 Thessalonians 2:9, al.;

(b) of close proximity, at, by, with: Matthew 3:10, Mark 11:4, Luke 4:11, Acts 3:2, al.; after εἶναι , Matthew 13:56, Mark 6:3, John 1:1, al.

2. Of time,

(a) towards (Plat., Xen., LXX: Genesis 8:11, al.): Luke 24:29;

(b) for: πρὸς καιρόν , Luke 8:13, 1 Corinthians 7:5; πρὸς ὥραν , John 5:35, al.; πρὸς ὀλίγον , James 4:14.

3. Of relation

(a) toward, with: Romans 5:1, 2 Corinthians 1:12, Colossians 4:5, 1 Thessalonians 4:12, al.;

(b) with regard to: Matthew 19:8, Mark 12:12, Romans 8:31, al.;

(c) pertaining to, to: Matthew 27:4, John 21:22, Romans 15:17, Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 5:1;

(d) according to: Luke 12:47, 2 Corinthians 5:10, Galatians 2:14, Ephesians 3:4; Ephesians 4:14;

(e) in comparison with: Romans 8:18.

IV. In composition:

towards (προσέρχομαι ), to (προσάγω ), against (προσκόπτω ), besides (προσδαπανάω ).

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

For this word which is used metaphorically of a ";leader"; in Acts 24:5, and nowhere else in the NT, see Poland Vereinswesen, p. 90.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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